Journal of Forestry Research

, Volume 29, Issue 3, pp 565–574 | Cite as

In vitro propagation of conifers using mature shoots

  • Mostafa K. Sarmast
Review Article


Micropropagation mostly leads to the production of innumerable true-to-type plants. However, establishing pathogen-free explants through in vitro culture requires a precise management of time for the exposure of explants to antimicrobial chemicals. The application of antimicrobial chemicals must also be managed to impose the least injury on explants. This review discusses the contributions of micropropagation procedures, explant types, subculture duration, media ingredients and plant growth regulators to the in vitro response of conifer explants. Even though regeneration from mature conifer explants such as mature shoots are laborious, the chances of variation, induced in vitro, are unlikely.


Conifers Decontamination Micropropagation Tissue culture 



I thank Dr. Jenna E. Gallegos (Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of California, Davis) for critically reading the manuscript. Mohsen Hamedpour-Darabi is thanked for editing the English.


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© Northeast Forestry University and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Horticultural Science, Faculty of Plant ProductionGorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources (GUASNR)GorganIran

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