In this study, we investigated the preventive effects of emamectin benzoate 9.7% SL, which was newly developed to reduce the injection volume and number of injection holes required to protect against pine wood nematode. None of the Pinus thunbergii trees injected with emamectin benzoate 9.7% SL at 0.3 mL/cm diameter at breast height (DBH) died within 2 years of inoculation with pine wood nematodes. Emamectin benzoate 9.7% SL injected at 0.6 mL/cm DBH resulted in no tree mortality for 3 years. Mean residue of emamectin benzoate 9.7% SL in pine twigs injected with 0.3 mL/cm DBH was 0.490 μg/g at 1 year after injection and 0.303 μg/g after 2 years. These residues values are greater than 0.031 μg/g, previously determined IC95 value for emamectin benzoate against the pine wood nematode. Our field experiment and residue analysis showed that emamectin benzoate 9.7% SL could be a substitute agent for emamectin benzoate 2.15% EC, which is widely used to prevent pine wood nematode in the field and that injection volume and number of injection holes can be greatly educed using this new formulation, which will reduce injury to the cambium, interruption of water movement, and infection of inoculation wounds by wood-decay or blue stain fungi.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Chawla ML, Prasad SK (1975) Techniques in nematology. II. Comparative efficiency of sampling tools and nematode extraction methods. Indian J Nematol 4:115–123
Choi YE, Moon YS (1989) Survey on distribution of pine wood nematode (Bursaphelenchus xylophilus) and its pathogenicity to pine trees in Korea. J Plant Pathol 5:277–286
Kwon TS, Shin JH, Lim JH, Kim YK, Lee EJ (2011) Management of pine wilt disease in Korea through preventative silvicultural control. For Ecol Manag 261:562–569
Lee SM, Kim DS, Lee SG, Park NC, Lee DW (2009a) Selection of trunk injection pesticides for preventive of pine wilt disease, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus on Japanese black pine (Pinus thunbergii). Korean J Pestic Sci 13:267–274
Lee SM, Kim DS, Kim CS, Cho KS, Choo HY, Lee DW (2009b) Persistence and distribution of trunk-injected abamectin in Pinus thunbergii and Pinus koraiensis tissues. Korean J Pestic Sci 13:190–196
Lee HR, Lee SC, Lee DH, Choi WS, Jung CS, Jeon JH, Kim JE, Park IK (2017) Identification of the aggregation-sex pheromone produced by male Monochamus saltuarius, a major insect vector of the pine wood nematode. J Chem Ecol 43:670–678
Shin SC (2008) Pine wilt disease in Korea. In: Zhao BG, Futai K, Sutherland JR, Takeuchi Y (eds) Pine wilt disease. Springer, Berlin, pp 26–32
Takai K, Soejima T, Suzuki T, Kawazu K (2000) Emamectin benzoate as a candidate for a trunk-injection agent against the pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. Pest Manag Sci 56:937–941
Takai K, Suzuki T, Kawazu K (2003a) Development and preventative effect against pine wilt disease of a novel liquid formulation of emamectin benzoate. Pest Manag Sci 59:365–370
Takai K, Suzuki T, Kawazu K (2003b) Distribution and persistence of emamectin benzoate at efficacious concentrations in pine tissues after injection of a liquid formulation. Pest Manag Sci 60:42–48
This work was supported by a grant from Syngenta Korea to IK Park, entitled “Control and prevention effect of emamectin benzoate 9.7% SL against sycamore lace bug (Corythucha ciliata) and pine wood nematode (Bursaphelenchus xylophilus)”.
Project funding: This work was supported by a grant from Syngenta Korea to IK Park.
The online version is available at http://www.springerlink.com
Corresponding editor: Chai Ruihai.
About this article
Cite this article
Lee, S., Lee, H., Kim, D. et al. Emamectin benzoate 9.7% SL as a new formulation for a trunk-injections against pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. J. For. Res. 31, 1399–1403 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11676-018-00873-x
- Emamectin benzoate 9.7% SL
- Emamectin benzoate 2.15% EC
- Trunk injection
- Pine wood nematode