Advertisement

Journal of Forestry Research

, Volume 29, Issue 3, pp 601–610 | Cite as

Effects of soil compaction on growth variables in Cappadocian maple (Acer cappadocicum) seedlings

  • Meghdad Jourgholami
Original Paper
  • 98 Downloads

Abstract

This study investigates the effects of increasing soil penetration resistance (SPR) on seedling morphology and seedling architecture. When seedlings of deciduous Cappadocian maple (Acer cappadocicum Gled.) were grown in a greenhouse in a loamy soil under a wide range of soil compactions, all morphological variables studied changed significantly with increasing SPR. The relationships between increasing SPR and all morphological responses except lateral root length followed a negative quadratic curve. All biomass variables except lateral root biomass showed a bell-shaped response with respect to SPR, with a maximum biomass variable between 0.6 and 1.2 MPa, decreasing at higher soil compaction values. All allocation ratios were significantly affected by soil penetration resistance. Biomass allocation to roots was also affected by soil compaction. There was not a significant relationship between the specific stem length and increasing soil penetration resistance. The specific root length showed two trends to increasing SPR; it first decreased in response to the moderate compaction treatment (up to about 1.2 MPa), then increased significantly. We concluded that increasing soil compaction caused morphological changes to root and shoot sections of A. cappadocicum seedlings.

Keywords

Soil penetration resistance Cappadocian maple Morphology Biomass Allocation ratios 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This paper is a one of the results of the research project No. 93014726. The authors would like to acknowledge the financial support of the Iran National Science Foundation (INSF). We thank two anonymous reviewers for helpful comments to improve the manuscript.

References

  1. Acácio V, Holmgren M, Jansen PA, Schrotter O (2007) Multiple recruitment limitation causes arrested succession in Mediterranean cork oak systems. Ecosystems 10:1220–1230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alameda D, Villar R (2009) Moderate soil compaction: implications on growth and architecture in seedlings of 17 woody plant species. Soil Tillage Res 103:325–331CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Alameda D, Villar R (2012) Linking root traits to plant physiology and growth in Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl. seedlings under soil compaction conditions. Environ Exp Bot 79:49–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ampoorter E, De Frenne P, Hermy M, Verheyen K (2011) Effects of soil compaction on growth and survival of tree saplings: A meta-analysis. Basic Appl Ecol 12:394–402CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ampoorter E, Goris R, Cornelis WM, Verheyen K (2007) Impact of mechanized logging on compaction status of sandy forest soils. For Ecol Manag 241:162–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Arvidsson J (1999) Nutrient uptake and growth of barley as affected by soil compaction. Plant Soil 208:9–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bassett IE, Simcock RC, Mitchell ND (2005) Consequences of soil compaction for seedling establishment: implications for natural regeneration and restoration. Aust Ecol 30:827–833CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bejarano MD, Villar R, Murillo AM, Quero JL (2010) Effects of soil compaction and light on growth of Quercus pyrenaica Willd. (Fagaceae) seedlings. Soil Tillage Res 110:108–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Blouin VM, Schmidt MG, Bulmer CE, Krzic M (2008) Effects of compaction and water content on lodgepole pine seedling growth. For Ecol Manag 255:2444–2452CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Brais S (2001) Persistence of soil compaction and effects on seedling growth in northwestern Quebec. Soil Sci Soc Am J 65:1263–1271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bulmer CE, Simpson DG (2005) Soil compaction and water content as factors affecting the growth of lodgepole pine seedlings on sandy clay loam soil. Can J Soil Sci 85:667–679CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cambi M, Certini G, Neri F, Marchi E (2015) The impact of heavy traffic on forest soils: a review. For Ecol Manag 338:124–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cochran PH, Brock T (1985) Soil compaction and initial height growth of planted ponderosa pine. USDA Forest Service. Research Note PSW 434, Portland, Oregon, 1–2Google Scholar
  14. Conlin TSS (1996) Soil compaction studies. FRDA Rep. No. 264. Canadian Forest Service, Victoria, British Colombia, 11–12Google Scholar
  15. Conlin TSS, van den Driessche R (1996) Short-term effects of soil compaction on growth of Pinus contorta seedlings. Can J For Res 26:727–739CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Corns GW (1988) Compaction by forestry equipment and effects on coniferous seedling growth on four soils in the Alberta foothills. Can J For Res 18:75–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Etehadi Abari M, Majnounian M, Malekian A, Jourgholami M (2017) Effects of forest harvesting on runoff and sediment characteristics in the Hyrcanian forests, northern Iran. Eur J For Res 136:375–386CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Fleming RL, Powers RF, Foster NW, Kranabetter JM, Scott DA, Ponder FJ, Berch S, Chapman WK, Kabzems RD, Ludovici KH, Morris DM, Page-Dumroese DS, Sanborn PT, Sanchez FG, Stone DM, Tiarks AE (2006) Effects of organic matter removal, soil compaction, and vegetation control on 5-year seedling performance: a regional comparison of long-term soil productivity sites. Can J For Res 36:529–550CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Fonseca TF, Abreu CG, Parresol BR (2004) Soil compaction and chestnut ink disease. For Pathol 34:273–283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Gomez A, Powers RF, Singer MJ, Horwath WR (2002) Soil compaction effects on growth of young ponderosa pine following litter removal in California’s Sierra Nevada. Soil Sci Soc Am J 66:1334–1343CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Gower ST, Vogt KA, Grier CC (1992) Carbon dynamics of rocky mountain Douglas-fir: influence of water and nutrient availability. Ecol Monogr 62:43–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Greacen EL, Sands R (1980) Compaction of forest soils. Aust J Soil Res 18:163–189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hatchell GE, Ralston CW, Foil RR (1970) Soil disturbances in logging. J For 68:772–775Google Scholar
  24. Jourgholami M, Majnounian B, Etehadi Abari M (2014) Effects of tree-length timber skidding on soil compaction in the skid trail in Hyrcanian forests. For Syst 23:288–293Google Scholar
  25. Kabzems R, Haeussler S (2005) Soil properties, aspen and white spruce responses five years after organic matter removal and compaction treatment. Can J For Res 35:2045–2055CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kormanek M, Głab T, Banach J, Szewczyk G (2015) Effects of soil bulk density on sessile oak Quercus petraea Liebl. Seedlings. Eur J For Res 134:969–979CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Kozlowski TT (1999) Soil compaction and growth of woody plants. Scand J For Res 4:596–619CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Misra RK, Gibbons AK (1996) Growth and morphology of eucalypt seedling roots in relation to soil strength arising from compaction. Plant Soil 182:1–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Mosena M, Dillenburg LR (2004) Early growth of Brazilian pine (Araucaria angustifolia [Bertol.] Kuntze) in response to soil compaction and drought. Plant Soil 258:293–306CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Pérez-Rámos IM, Gómez-Aparicio LG, Villar R, García LV, Marañón T (2010) Seedling growth and morphology of three oak species along field resource gradients and seed mass variation: a seedling age-dependent response. J Veg Sci 21:419–437CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Sagheb-Talebi K, Sajedi T, Pourhashemi M (2014) Forests of Iran: a treasure from the past, a hope for the future. Springer, Berlin, pp 42–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Schenk HJ, Jackson RB (2002) Rooting depths, lateral root spreads and below-ground/above-ground allometries of plants in water-limited ecosystems. J Ecol 90:480–494CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Siegel-Issem CM, Burger JA, Powers RF, Ponder F, Patterson SC (2005) Seedling root growth as a function of soil density and water content. Soil Sci Soc Am J 69:215–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Skinner AK, Lunt ID, Spooner P, McIntyre S (2009) The effect of soil compaction on germination and early growth of Eucalyptus albens and an exotic annual grass. Aust Ecol 34:698–704CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Smith KD, May PB, Moore GM (2001) The influence of compaction and soil strength on the establishment of four Australian landscape trees. J Arboric 27:1–7Google Scholar
  36. Souch CA, Martin PJ, Stephens W, Spoor G (2004) Effects of soil compaction and mechanical damage at harvest on growth and biomass production of short rotation coppice willow. Plant Soil 263:173–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Tracy SR, Black CR, Roberts JA, Sturrock C, Mairhofer S, Craigon J, Mooney SJ (2012) Quantifying the impact of soil compaction on root system architecture in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) by X-ray micro-computed tomography. Ann Bot 110:511–519CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  38. Tubeileh A, Groleau-Renaud V, Plantureux S, Guckert A (2003) Effect of soil compaction on photosynthesis and carbon partitioning within a maize-soil system. Soil Tillage Res 71:151–161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Twum EKA, Nii-Annang S (2015) Impact of soil compaction on bulk density and root biomass of Quercus petraea L. at reclaimed post-lignite mining lite in Lusatia, Germany. Appl Environ Soil Sci 2015:1–5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Valladares FE, Martinez-Ferri L, Balaguer E, Perez-Corona Manrique E (2000) Low leaf-level response to light and nutrients in Mediterranean evergreen oaks: a conservative resource-use strategy? New Phytol 148:79–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Verdu M, Garcıa-Fayos P (1996) Nucleation processes in a Mediterranean bird-dispersed plants. Funct Ecol 10:275–280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Wasterlund I (1985) Compaction of till soils and growth tests with Norway spruce and Scots pine. For Ecol Manag 11:171–189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Zisa RP, Halverson HG, Stout BB (1980) Establishment and early growth of conifers on compact soils in urban areas. Res. Pap. NE-451. Broomall, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station, 2–7Google Scholar
  44. Zou C, Penfold C, Sands R, Misra RK, Hudson I (2001) Effects of soil air-filled porosity, soil matric potential and soil strength on primary root growth of radiata pine seedlings. Plant Soil 236:105–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Northeast Forestry University and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Forestry and Forest Economics, Faculty of Natural ResourcesUniversity of TehranKarajIran

Personalised recommendations