Journal of Forestry Research

, Volume 29, Issue 3, pp 841–850 | Cite as

Predicting intensity of white-tailed deer herbivory in the Central Appalachian Mountains

  • Andrew B. Kniowski
  • W. Mark Ford
Original Paper


In eastern North America, white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) can have profound influences on forest biodiversity and forest successional processes. Moderate to high deer populations in the central Appalachians have resulted in lower forest biodiversity. Legacy effects in some areas persist even following deer population reductions or declines. This has prompted managers to consider deer population management goals in light of policies designed to support conservation of biodiversity and forest regeneration while continuing to support ample recreational hunting opportunities. However, despite known relationships between herbivory intensity and biodiversity impact, little information exists on the predictability of herbivory intensity across the varied and spatially diverse habitat conditions of the central Appalachians. We examined the predictability of browsing rates across central Appalachian landscapes at four environmental scales: vegetative community characteristics, physical environment, habitat configuration, and local human and deer population demographics. In an information-theoretic approach, we found that a model fitting the number of stems browsed relative to local vegetation characteristics received most (62%) of the overall support of all tested models assessing herbivory impact. Our data suggest that deer herbivory responded most predictably to differences in vegetation quantity and type. No other spatial factors or demographic factors consistently affected browsing intensity. Because herbivory, vegetation communities, and productivity vary spatially, we suggest that effective broad-scale herbivory impact assessment should include spatially-balanced vegetation monitoring that accounts for regional differences in deer forage preference. Effective monitoring is necessary to avoid biodiversity impacts and deleterious changes in vegetation community composition that are difficult to reverse and/or may not be detected using traditional deer-density based management goals.


Biodiversity Central Appalachian Mountains Herbivory Odocoileus virginianus Predicting browsing intensity White-tailed deer 



Specifically we thank N. Lafon, M. Knox, J. Bowman, and D. Steffen for their comments and support. We also thank J. Parkhurst for his comments on this manuscript and C. Parker for his help with field data collection.

Supplementary material

11676_2017_476_MOESM1_ESM.docx (24 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 24 kb)


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Copyright information

© Northeast Forestry University and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany (outside the USA) 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Fish and Wildlife ConservationVirginia TechBlacksburgUSA
  2. 2.U.S. Geological Survey, Virginia Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research UnitVirginia TechBlacksburgUSA

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