Journal of Failure Analysis and Prevention

, Volume 18, Issue 2, pp 382–391 | Cite as

Experimental Study on Particle Erosion Failure of Abrupt Pipe Contraction in Hydraulic Fracturing

  • Jiarui Cheng
  • Yihua Dou
  • Jiding Zhang
  • Ningsheng Zhang
  • Zhen Li
  • Zhiguo Wang
Technical Article---Peer-Reviewed


Erosion damage is one of the main factors leading to failure of pipeline in oil field, especially for sudden contraction section under solid–liquid two-phase flow in hydraulic fracturing. In this article, a laboratory experiment was carried out to analyze the effects of pipe flow velocity, particle concentration and pipe inner diameter ratio on particle erosion of the reducing wall in high-viscosity liquid. The results show that the erosion rate and erosion distribution are different not only in radial direction but also in circumferential direction of the sample. The upper part of sample always has a minimum erosion rate and erosion area. Besides, the erosion rate of reducing wall is most affected by fluid flow velocity, and the erosion area is most sensitive to the change in the diameter ratio. Meanwhile, the erosion rate of reducing wall in cross-linked fracturing fluid is mainly determined by the fluid flowing state due to the high viscosity of the liquid. In general, the increase in flow velocity and diameter ratio not only causes the expansion of erosion-affected flow region in sudden contraction section, but also leads to more particles impact the wall.


Sudden contraction pipe Water-based fracturing fluid Particle erosion test Erosion dominant factor Erosion prediction 



This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51674199), and it was also performed by the Research Institute of Safety Evaluation and Control of Completion Test System.


  1. 1.
    C. Rivard, D. Lavoie, R. Lefebvre et al., An overview of Canadian shale gas production and environmental concerns. Int. J. Coal Geol. 126, 64–76 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    M. Parsi, K. Najmi, F. Najafifard et al., A comprehensive review of solid particle erosion modeling for oil and gas wells and pipelines applications. J. Nat. Gas Sci. Eng. 21, 850–873 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    J.G.A. Bitter, Study of erosion phenomenon–1,2. Wear 5–21, 169–190 (1963)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    I. Finnie, Erosion of surfaces by solid particles. Wear 3, 87–103 (1960)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    G.L. Sheldon, A. Kanhere, Investigation of impingement erosion using single particles. Wear 21, 195–208 (1972)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    I.M. Hutchings, R.E. Winter, Particle erosion of ductile metals: a mechanism of material removal. Wear 27, 121–128 (1974)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    G.P. Tilly, Two stage mechanism of ductile erosion. Wear 23, 87–96 (1973)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    A.V. Levy, Platelet mechanism of erosion of ductile metals. Wear 108, 1–21 (1986)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    I.M. Hutchings, N.H. Macmillan, D.G. Rickerby, Further studies of the oblique impact of a hard sphere against a ductile solid. Int. J. Mech. Sci. 23, 639–646 (1981)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    C. Huang, S. Chiovelli, P. Minev et al., A comprehensive phenomenological model for erosion of materials in jet flow. Powder Technol. 187, 237–279 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    J.R. Cheng, N.S. Zhang, Z. Li et al., Erosion failure of horizontal pipe reducing wall in power-law fluid containing particles via CFD–DEM coupling method. J. Fail. Anal. Prev. 16, 1071–1081 (2017)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    R. Malka, S. Nešić, D.A. Gulino, Erosion–corrosion and synergistic effects in disturbed liquid-particle flow. Wear 262(7–8), 791–799 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    C.Y. Wong, C. Solnordal, A. Swallow et al., Experimental and computational modelling of solid particle erosion in a pipe annular cavity. Wear 303(1–2), 109–129 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Z. Lin, H. Xu, Y. Wang et al., Experimental study of particle erosion in a cavity with a height difference between its walls. Powder Technol. 286, 378–384 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    W.S. Peng, X.W. Gao, Numerical prediction of erosion distributions and solid particle trajectories in elbows for gas–solid flow. J. Nat. Gas Sci. Eng. 30, 455–470 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    X. Chen, B.S. McLaury, S.A. Shirazi, Application and experimental validation of a computational fluid dynamics (CFD)-based erosion prediction model in elbows and plugged tees. Comput. Fluids 33, 1251–1272 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© ASM International 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jiarui Cheng
    • 1
  • Yihua Dou
    • 2
  • Jiding Zhang
    • 2
  • Ningsheng Zhang
    • 3
  • Zhen Li
    • 2
  • Zhiguo Wang
    • 2
  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Flow in Power EngineeringXi’an Jiaotong UniversityXi’anPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Department of Mechanical EngineeringXi’an Shiyou UniversityXi’anPeople’s Republic of China
  3. 3.Department of Petroleum EngineeringXi’an Shiyou UniversityXi’anPeople’s Republic of China

Personalised recommendations