Journal of Failure Analysis and Prevention

, Volume 15, Issue 2, pp 327–333 | Cite as

Experimental and Analytical Investigation of Steel Bolts Failed After Isothermal Heat Treatment

  • Abdul Sattar
  • Musharaf Abbas
  • Hasan Junaid Hasham
  • Yasir Baig
Technical Article---Peer-Reviewed


In the present study, ultra high-strength steel bolts declared unqualified in the magnetic particle testing (MPT) after isothermal heat treatment have been investigated to find out the probable cause of failure. The material was characterized by scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, tensile testing, hardness, and chemical analysis. It has been revealed that the magnetic flux leakage in MPT was due to the presence of sub-surface non-metallic inclusions. Finite element analysis (FEA) had been carried out to approximate the ensuing stress state due to non-metallic inclusions in the steel during the heat treatment process. Radial (σ xx), axial (σ yy), shear (σ xy), and von-Mises stresses were determined, and their peak stress values were evaluated to assess the probable mode of failure. FEA results showed significantly high stresses arising from thermal expansion mismatch between steel and inclusions; however, the peak stress value did not exceed the yield strength of the material.


Magnetic flux leakage testing (MFL) Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) Finite element analysis Thermal expansion mismatch Inclusions 


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Copyright information

© ASM International 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Abdul Sattar
    • 1
  • Musharaf Abbas
    • 2
    • 3
  • Hasan Junaid Hasham
    • 2
  • Yasir Baig
    • 3
  1. 1.University of Engineering and TechnologyLahorePakistan
  2. 2.International Islamic UniversityIslamabadPakistan
  3. 3.Beijing University of Aeronautics and AstronauticsBeijingChina

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