Journal of Failure Analysis and Prevention

, Volume 13, Issue 6, pp 684–688 | Cite as

Failure Analysis of Motor Tire Bead Wires During Torsion Test

  • Souvik Das
  • Prashant Koli
  • Jitendra Mathur
  • Arthita Dey
  • Tanmay Bhattacharyya
  • Sandip Bhattacharyya
Case History---Peer-Reviewed


Torsion testing is used to determine the quality of steel wire used for motor tire beads in pneumatic tires. These steel wires must have good-tensile strength so that the tire bead can support the finished tire safely, and yet retain adequate ductility to deform easily around the forming wheel. The present paper highlights premature failure of bead wire which failed during torsion test. Torsion property is one of the important parameters of tire bead as it monitors both the metallurgical soundness and surface quality of a drawn wire. From the analysis, it has been concluded that probable reason for premature failure is due to strain aging (dynamic and static) caused by interstitial atoms which bounds the mobile dislocations resulting in increases yield strength and decreases bead formability. Moreover, the microstructural study indicates that failed specimen has misaligned and broken lamella of pearlite with globular cementite which creates the array of voids. These voids hinder the rotation of pearlite during torsion test thus leading to brittle fracture.


Motor tire bead Torsion Interstitial atoms Globular cementite 


  1. 1.
    L. Godecki, The delamination of spring wires during torsion testing. Wire Ind. 7, Part 1: 47–51, Part 2: 151–156, Part 3: 241–245, Part 4: 419–425, Part 5: 524–526 (1969)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Y.Y. Su, R.M. Shemenski, Torsion test: in-depth characterization and microscopic analysis. Wire J. 9, 128–139 (2000)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    S. Vijayakar, Thermal influences on residual stresses on drawn wire—a finite element analysis. Wire J. 5, 116–119 (1997)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    P. Renz, W. Steuff, R. Kopp, Possibilities of influencing residual stresses in drawn wires and bars. Wire J. 9, 64–69 (1996)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    T. Tarui, J. Takahashi, H. Tashiro, N. Maruyama, S. Nishida, Microstructure control and strengthening of high-carbon steel wires. Nippon Steel Tech. Rep. 91, 56–61 (2005)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    P. Watte, J.V. Humbeeck, E. Aernoudt, I. Lefever, Strain aging in heavily drawn eutectoid steel wires. Scr. Mater. 34, 89–93 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    F. Springer, A. Nortmann, C. Schwink, A study of basic processes characterizing dynamic strain ageing. Phys. Stat. Sol. 170A, 63–81 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    P.V. Liempt, M. Onink, A. Bodin, Modelling the influence of dynamic strain ageing on deformation behavior. Adv. Eng. Mater. 4, 225–232 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    L. Godecki, Phenomena associated with the torsion deformation of steel wires. Wire Ind. 1, 719–724 (1971)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    A. Robonyi, Torsion tests on wire. Wire Ind. 56, 350–352 (1989)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    A.H. Cottrell, B.A. Bilby, Dislocation theory of yielding and strain ageing of iron. Proc. Phys. Soc. LXII, 49–62 (1948)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    ASTM Standard D4975, Standard Test Methods for Single-Filament Tirebead Wire made from Steel (ASTM International, West Conshohocken, 2004)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    W.J. Nam, C.M. Bae, Void initiation and microstructural changes during wire drawing of pearlitic steels. Mater. Sci. Eng. 203, 278 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    S.K. Lee, D.C. Ko, B.M. Kim, Pass schedule of wire drawing process to prevent delamination for high strength steel cord wire. Mater. Des. 30, 2919–2927 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© ASM International 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Souvik Das
    • 1
  • Prashant Koli
    • 1
  • Jitendra Mathur
    • 1
  • Arthita Dey
    • 1
  • Tanmay Bhattacharyya
    • 1
  • Sandip Bhattacharyya
    • 1
  1. 1.Metallurgical Laboratories, R&D and Scientific ServicesTata Steel LimitedJamshedpurIndia

Personalised recommendations