Advertisement

Journal of Failure Analysis and Prevention

, Volume 11, Issue 6, pp 565–577 | Cite as

Failure Analysis of an Effluent Treatment Plant in an Oral Care Industry

  • I. A. Oke
  • K. T. Oladepo
  • N. O. Olarinoye
  • M. A. Asani
  • O. F. Olaobaju
Feature
  • 166 Downloads

Abstract

Reports of environmental pollution by industries worldwide call for an urgent need to assess wastewater treatment facilities in various industries. This study presents an assessment of a wastewater treatment plant in an oral care (toothpaste) industry. The industry was visited, facilities for wastewater treatment were assessed (based only on efficacy to remove selected environmental and human’s health-related pollutants) and measurement of essential design parameters and facility characteristics were conducted. The study revealed that the averages of flow rate, biochemical oxygen demand at 5 days (BOD5), chemical oxygen demand (COD), suspended solids (SS), iron concentration, and total solids (TS) in the influent wastewater into the plant were 4.96 ± 0.6 m3/d; 90 ± 5 mg/L; 224 ± 8 mg/L; 1266.78 ± 10.24 mg/L; 0.31 ± 0.11 mg/L, and 2198.65 ± 20.44 mg/L, respectively. Individual efficacies were as follows: 0.49, 0.28, and 0.38% for SS, TS, and calcium, respectively. The overall efficacy of the wastewater treatment facility was found to be 0.020% which was significantly lower than expected. This indicates that no treatment was conducted on the wastewater and that the wastewater is being discharged into the environment essentially untreated. Equalization time (t eq) was found to be 2.0 h with equivalent equalized BOD5 concentration of 90 ± 5 mg/L, while expected volume for the equalization tank is 1.5 m3. It was concluded that failure (lower overall efficacy) of the system can be attributed to lack of an equalization tank, inadequate treatment processes, and refusal to apply standardized engineering code and practices. Although such conditions are rare in developed nations, these results demonstrate the problems in pollution control in developing communities.

Keywords

Environmental pollution Oral care Health-related pollutants Efficacy Standardized engineering code 

Abbreviations

FEPA

Federal Environmental Protection Agency

GLUMRBSSE

Great Lake Upper Mississippi River Board of State Sanitary Engineers

MOP8

Manual of Practice number 8

List of Symbols

ρ

Mass density of the fluid, kg/m3 = ρ l

θs

Angle of the rack with horizontal, °

βs

Bar shape factor

μs

Dynamic viscosity of the fluid, N.s/m2

Δt and t

Time increment and time, respectively, d

Δteq

Time interval over which samples were composite, h

Asp

Fine screen effective submerged open area, m2

BOD5

Biochemical oxygen demand at 5 days, mg/L

bs

Minimum clear spacing of bars, m

C2eq

Basin concentration after addition of flow for time Δt, mg/L

C2teq

Basin concentration before addition of flow for time Δt, mg/L

Cieq

Basin average influent concentration over a period of Δt, mg/L

COD

Chemical oxygen demand, mg/L

Csi

Fine screen coefficient of discharge, dimensionless

Dm

Diameter of the impeller, m

g

Acceleration due to gravity, m/s2

G

Mean velocity gradient, m/s

hLc

Head loss in a coarse screen, m

hLf

Head loss in fine screens, m

hv

Velocity head of flow approaching the rack, m = \( k_{\text{v}} \left( {\frac{{V_{\text{a}}^{2} }}{2g}} \right) \)

kmn

Constant in mixing, varies with equipment used

nr

Number of revolution per second, rpm

Pl

Power required in laminar condition, W

Pt

Power required in turbulent condition, W

Pv

Power required per unit volume, W/m3

Qs

Discharge through the fine screen, m3/d

Seq

Standard deviation of effluent wastewater concentration at a specified probability

Siq

Standard deviation of influent wastewater concentration

teq

Equalization detention time, h

ws

Maximum cross-sectional width of the bars facing direction of flow, m

Notes

Acknowledgments

We wish to acknowledge Education Trust Fund (ETF) Nigeria and Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria for supporting this research work as part of preliminary studies to our research study titled “Electrochemical Treatment of Raw Water and Wastewaters.” Also, the authors wish to acknowledge Linkages Office of Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria for the Scientific Writing and Publishing & Oral Communication and Presentation Training given to the main author. We applied the sequence determines-credit (SDC) approach, which involves intellectual input, practical (data capture, data processing and organizing) input, specialist input, literary input and financial input for the sequence of the author.

References

  1. 1.
    FEPA: Guidelines to Standards for Environmental Pollution Control in Nigeria. Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA), Lagos (1991)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ogedengbe, M.O., Ige, M.T., Ukatu, A.C.: The performance of a locally built mechanical system for grading filter sand. Int. J. Dev. Technol. 1, 189–197 (1983)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Babatola, J.O., Oladepo, K.T., Lukman, S., Olarinoye, N.O., Oke, I.: A failure analysis of a dissolved air flotation treatment plant in a dairy industry. J. Fail. Anal. Preven. 11(2), 110–122 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Nemerow, N.L.: Theories and Practices on Industrial Waste Treatment, 1st edn. Addison-Wesley, London (1963)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Fair, G.M., Geyer, J.C., Okun, D.A.: Elements of Water Supply and Wastewater Disposal, 2nd edn. Wiley, New York (1971)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Metcalf and Eddy, Inc.: Edited and Revised by Tchobanoglous, G, Burton, F. L. Wastewater Engineering, Treatment, Disposal and Reuse, 2nd edn. (1991)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Steel, E.W., McGhee, J.T.: Water Supply and Sewerage, 1st edn. McGraw-Hill, Tokyo (1979)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Noyes, R.: Unit Operations in Environmental Engineering, 1st edn. Noyes Publication, Park Ridge, NJ (1994)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Martins, J.E., Martins, T.E.: Technologies for Small Water and Wastewater Systems, 2nd edn. Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, New York (1993)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Eckenfelder, W.W.: Industrial Water Pollution Control, 2nd edn. McGraw-Hill, Tokyo (1989)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Humenick, M.J.: Water and Wastewater Treatment, Calculations for Chemical and Physical Processes, 1st edn. Marcel Dekker Inc, New York (1977)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    MOP8: Sewage Treatment Plant Design, Water Pollution Control Federation and the America Society of Civil Engineers, Washington, DC (1967)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    GLUMRBSSE: Recommended Standards for Sewage Work, 1968th edn. Health Education Service, New York (1968)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Oke, I.: A development and performance-testing of an electrochemical process for selected industrial wastewaters. Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, Civil Engineering Department, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife (2007)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Adewuyi, G.O., Oputu, O.U., Opasina, M.A.: Assessment of groundwater quality and saline intrusions in coastal aquifers of Lagos Metropolis, Nigeria. J. Water Resour. Prot. 2, 849–853 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© ASM International 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • I. A. Oke
    • 1
  • K. T. Oladepo
    • 1
  • N. O. Olarinoye
    • 2
  • M. A. Asani
    • 3
  • O. F. Olaobaju
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Civil EngineeringObafemi Awolowo UniversityIle-IfeNigeria
  2. 2.Department of Chemistry Adeyemi College of Education OndoObafemi Awolowo UniversityIle-IfeNigeria
  3. 3.Department of Urban and Regional PlanningLadoke Akintola University TechnologyOgbomosoNigeria

Personalised recommendations