Journal of Failure Analysis and Prevention

, Volume 11, Issue 6, pp 684–692 | Cite as

Fault Detection of Linear Guide Preload of a Positioning Stage with Vibration–Acoustic Analysis

  • Jui-Pin Hung
  • Ching-Yuan Lin
  • Tzuo-Liang Luo
Technical Article---Peer-Reviewed


The vibration analysis method has been widely used to detect faults in the components of a machine. For a linear positioning stage, its vibration characteristics are closely related to and affected by the preload of linear guides. To clarify the meaning of the vibration signals coming out from an abnormal machine, in this study we aimed to investigate the influence of a faulty linear guide on the vibration and acoustic characteristics of a positioning stage through experimental and finite element modeling approaches. Experimental measurements indicate that stages equipped with abnormal or damaged linear guides indeed exhibit different vibration behavior compared to stages with intact guides. According to finite element analysis, the variation in vibration characteristics can be attributed to the changes in the structural stiffness of linear guides because of rolling ball defects. This phenomenon was also found in the acoustic characteristics measured for stages under various preloaded conditions, providing further correlations between the variations in acoustic characteristics and changes in structural stiffness. The present results clearly show that faulty conditions of linear guides can be effectively detected by means of monitoring the vibration and acoustic characteristics of the stage.


Fault detection Linear guide Preload Stage Vibration–acoustic analysis 



This study was supported by National Science Council in Taiwan through Grant NSC98-2221-E-167-004 and Industrial Technology Research Institute, respectively, which are gratefully acknowledged.


  1. 1.
    Mitchell, S.J.: Machinery Analysis and Monitoring. PennWell Publishing Company, Oklahoma (1981)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Eshleman, R.L., Lewis, F.M.: Torsional vibration in reciprocating and rotating machines. In: Harris, C.M. (ed.) Shock and Vibration Handbook. McGraw-Hill, New York (1988)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    McFadden, P.D.: Detection of gear faults by decomposition of matched difference of vibration signals. Mech. Syst. Signal Process. 14(5), 805–817 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Amabili, M., Fregolent, A.: A method to identify modal parameters and gear errors by vibrations of spur gear pair. J. Sound Vib. 214(2), 339–357 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Lynagh, N., Rahnejat, H., Ebrahimi, M., Aini, R.: Diagnostics for real-time vibration monitoring of precision spindles. In: Sixth International Symposium AMST, pp. 299–310. MEP Publications (1998)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Lynagh, N., Rahnejat, H., Ebrahimi, M., Aini, R.: Bearing induced vibration in precision high speed routing spindles. Int. J. Mach. Tool Manuf. 40, 561–577 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Purohit, R.K., Purohitk, K.: Dynamic analysis of ball bearings with effect of preload and number of balls. Int. J. Appl. Mech. Eng. 11(1), 77–91 (2006)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Harsha, S.P., Sandeep, K., Prakash, R.E.: Effects of preload and number of balls on nonlinear dynamic behaviors of ball bearing system. Int. J. Nonlinear Sci. Numer. Simul. 4(3), 265–278 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Igarashi, T., Hamada, H.: Studies on the vibration and sound of defective rolling bearings (first report: vibration of ball bearings with one defect). Bull. Jpn. Soc. Mech. Eng. 25(204), 994–1001 (1982)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Harris, T.A.: Rolling Bearing Analysis. Wiley, New York (1966)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Rafaela, S., Rahnejat, H., Ainib, R.: Vibration monitoring of high speed spindles using spectral analysis techniques. Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf. 42, 1223–1234 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Wardle, F.P.: Vibration forces produced by waviness of the rolling surfaces of thrust loaded ball bearings. Part 2, experimental validation. Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. C Mech. Eng. Sci. 202(C5), 313–319 (1988)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hung, J.P.: Load effect on the vibration characteristics of a stage with rolling guides. J. Mech. Sci. Technol. 23(1), 89–99 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Johnson, K.J.: Contact Mechanics. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (1985)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Brewe, D.E., Hamrock, B.J.: Simplified solution for elliptical-contact deformation between two elastic solid. Trans. ASME J. Lubr. Technol. 99, 485–487 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Greenwood, J.A.: Analysis of elliptical Herztian contacts. Tribol. Int. 30(3), 235–237 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    HIWIN Technology Company: HIWIN ball screws technical information. Taichung, Taiwan. (2006)
  18. 18.
    THK Technology Company: THK ball screws technical information: ball screw peripherals. (2006)

Copyright information

© ASM International 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringNational Chin-Yi University of TechnologyTaiping 411Taiwan, ROC
  2. 2.Industrial Technology Research InstituteHsinchuTaiwan, ROC

Personalised recommendations