Advertisement

Journal of Failure Analysis and Prevention

, Volume 11, Issue 5, pp 522–529 | Cite as

Failure Analysis of a Ruptured Trunkline

  • G. M. Oyatogun
  • M. O. Adeoye
  • O. E. Olorunniwo
  • L. E. Umoru
Technical Article---Peer-Reviewed

Abstract

This article reports a detailed analysis of a failure observed in a petroleum trunkline in the Niger Delta region of southwestern Nigeria. The study was carried out using various techniques including metallurgical, chemical, and x-ray analysis. Leakage was observed along a petroleum trunkline route, and excavation of the trunkline revealed that the trunkline had actually fractured along the 6 o’clock position. The pipeline material was found to conform to the API specification for low carbon steel of X52 grade. Wormwood-like interconnecting pits typical of microbial-induced corrosion were noticed at the 6 o’clock position. Scale deposits composed of corrosion products and debris from the crude oil transported by the trunkline were also noticed. The liquid analysis result showed that the produced water was corrosive, and it has a high bacteria count. The failure of the trunkline was found to be due to the thinning of the pipeline at the 6 o’clock position by the combined effect of abrading by debris, erosion, and corrosion aided by bacteria activities, i.e., microbial-induced corrosion (MIC) and eventual rupture.

Keywords

Trunkline Microbial-induced corrosion Erosion corrosion Fracture Pipeline 

References

  1. 1.
    Angostini, R.A., Young, R.D.: A case history: investigations of microbially influenced corrosion in a west Texas waterflood. In: Proceedings of the NACE Annual Conference, Corrosion/90, paper 119, pp. 1–14. NACE International, Houston, TX (1990)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Buck, E. Maddux, G.C., Sullivan, R.L.: Internal Corrosion Cost Impact Study—United States Natural Gas Exploration and Production Industry, GRI-96/0056 Document No. 96-1466. Gas Research Institute, Des Plaines, IL (1996)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Farthing, S.: Company combats MIC with aggressive control program. Pipe Line Gas Ind. 80(10), 43–47 (1997)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Graves, J.W., Sullivan, E.H.: Internal corrosion in gas gathering systems and transmission lines. Mater. Prot. 5, 33–37 (1996)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kholodenko, V.P., Jigletsova, S.K., Chugnov, V.A., Rodin, V.B., Kobelev, V.S., Karpov, S.V.: Chemicomicrobiological diagnostics of stress corrosion cracking of trunk pipelines. Appl. Biochem. Microbiol. 36, 594–601 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Koch, G.H., Brongers, M.P.H., Thompson, N.G., Virmani, Y.P., Payer, J.H.: Corrosion Costs and Preventive Strategies in the United States, FHWA-RD-01-156 [Online]. Federal Highway Administration, Washington, DC (2001). http://www.corrosioncost.com
  7. 7.
    Pope, D.H., Pope, R.M.: Guide for the Monitoring and Treatment of Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion in the Natural Gas Industry, GRI Report GRI-96/0488. Gas Research Institute, Des Plaines, IL (1998)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Pound, B.G.: Gap Analysis of the Pipeline Research Committee International (PRCI)/Gas Research Institute (GRI) Research Program on Internal Corrosion, GRI Contract 6008, Topical Report SF26363.000/AOTO/1198/BP02. Gas Research Institute, Des Plaines, IL (1998)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Tillis, W.: Corrosion in the Petroleum Industry. Ondeo Nalco Energy Services, Sugar Land, TX (2003)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Trethewey, K.R., Chamberlain, J.: Corrosion for Science and Engineering, 2nd edn. Longman Group Limited, Essex, England (1995)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Fontana, M.G., Greene, N.D.: Corrosion Engineering. McGraw-Hill, New York (1978)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Uhlig, H.H.: Corrosion Handbook. Wiley, New York (1948)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Uhlig, H.H.: Corrosion and Corrosion Control. Wiley, New York (1971)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Pourbaix, M.: CEBELCOR, Brussels, Atlas of Electrochemical Equilibria in Aqueous Solutions. NACE, Houston, TX (1974)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Tait, W.S.: An Introduction to Electrochemical Corrosion Testing for Practicing Engineers and Scientists. Pair O’Docs Publications, Racine, WI (1994)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Peabody, A.W.: Control of Pipeline Corrosion. NACE, Houston, TX (1967)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    ASM International: ASM Handbook, vol. 11, Failure Analysis and Prevention. ASM International, Metals Park, OH (1967)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Jacobson, G.A.: Corrosion-A Natural but Controllable Process. http://www.nace.org/nace/content/library/articles/corrosion101.asp
  19. 19.
    Oldfield, J.W.: Crevice corrosion of stainless steels—the importance of crevice geometry and alloy composition. Métaux-Corros.-Ind. 56(668), 137–147 (1981)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Hildebrand, E.L.: Materials selection for petroleum refineries and petrochemical plants. Mater. Prot. Perform. 11(7), 19–22 (1972)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Freedman, A.J., Tisinai, G.F., Troscinski, E.S.: Selection of alloys for refinery processing equipment. Corrosion 16(1), 19t–25t (1960)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Endean, H.J., Shelton, R.D.: Water Initiated Problems in Production Operations. Champion Technologies, Inc., Houston, TX (1989)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Ringas, C., Strauss, F.J., Gnoinski, J., Callaghan, B.G.: Research on the Effects of Varying Water Quality on the Corrosion of Different Pipe Materials in the PWV/Klerksdorp Areas. Water Research Commission (WRC) Report No: 254/1/99 (1999)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Byars, H.G.: Corrosion Control in Petroleum Production. TPC Publication 5, 2nd edn. NACE International, Houston, TX (1999)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Craig, B.D.: Practical Oilfield Metallurgy and Corrosion, 2nd edn. PennWell Publishing Company, Tulsa, OK (1993)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Endean, H.J.: Oil Field corrosion Detection and Control Handbook. Champion Technologies, Inc., Houston, TX (1989)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Strickland, L.N., Fortnum R.T., DuBose, B.W.: A case history of microbiologically influenced corrosion in the Lost Hills oilfield, Kern County, California. In: Proceedings of the NACE Annual Conference, Corrosion/96, paper 297, pp. 1–11. NACE International, Houston, TX (1996)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Ringas, C., Ramothlola, J., Prinsloo, C.: Microbial Corrosion of Common Piping Materials in the PWV Area. Bondonno. WRC Report No. 432/1/99 (1999)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Ringas, C., Robinson, F.P.A.: Corrosion of stainless steel by sulfate reducing bacteria—electrochemical techniques. Corrosion 44(6), June 1998 (1998)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Jones, D.A.: Principles and Prevention of Corrosion, 2nd edn. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River (1996)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    ASM International: ASM Handbook, vol. 13, Corrosion. ASM International, Metals Park, OH (1987)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Ramothlola, J.S., Cromarty, R., Ringas, C.: Exposure of Generic Coating Systems in Raw South African Dam Waters. WRC Report 381/2/99 (1999)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© ASM International 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. M. Oyatogun
    • 1
  • M. O. Adeoye
    • 1
  • O. E. Olorunniwo
    • 1
  • L. E. Umoru
    • 1
  1. 1.Materials Science and Engineering DepartmentObafemi Awolowo UniversityIle-IfeNigeria

Personalised recommendations