Journal of Failure Analysis and Prevention

, Volume 9, Issue 2, pp 147–158 | Cite as

Application of Numerical Method to Investigation of Fatigue Crack Behavior Through Friction Stir Welding

  • A. F. Golestaneh
  • Aidy Ali
Technical Article---Peer-Reviewed


Fatigue crack propagation through a friction stir welded (FSW) joint of 2024-T351 Al alloy is investigated numerically. The governing relationships for predicting the crack behavior including incremental crack length, crack growth rate, and crack growth direction are presented. Stress intensity is calculated based on displacement correlation technique, and fatigue crack growth through the FSW joint is investigated under linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) using the Paris model. The concepts of crack closure, residual stress, and stress relaxation are incorporated into the Paris model to support the final results. Maximum circumferential tensile stress method is applied to predict the crack growth direction. Finally, the numerical approaches are employed to the high number of elements in the framework of Fracture Analysis Code (FRANC2D/L) to simulate the fatigue crack propagation through the FSW joint including various zones with different material properties. Fatigue lifetime of the welded joint is predicted by implementing the same procedure for various loading values. The obtained numerical results are validated with the experimental work (Ali et al., Int J Fatigue 30:2030–2043, 2008).


Fatigue crack growth Finite element method Friction stir welding Numerical analysis Simulation 

List of symbols


Half of the internal crack length


Crack growth rate


Constant in Paris model


Modulus of elasticity (Young’s modulus)


Strain hardening modulus


Stress intensity factor for opening mode (mode I)


Maximum stress intensity factor


Exponent in Paris model


Strain hardening exponent


Plastic zone size


Stress ratio




Incremental crack length


Stress intensity factor range


Stress range


Effective stress range


Poisson’s ratio


Yield strength


Maximum applied stress


Minimum applied stress


Crack-opening stress


Residual stress



The authors would like to thank the University Putra Malaysia (UPM) for awarding fellowship to one of the authors (A. F. Golestaneh) and for supporting this research.


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Copyright information

© ASM International 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Faculty of EngineeringUniversity Putra MalaysiaSerdangMalaysia

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