Cold Spray Construction of Nanostructured Titania Coatings for Photocatalytic Applications

Abstract

Nano-titania (TiO2) has drawn considerable attention for decades for its excellent photocatalytic activity. The use of photocatalyst TiO2 in the form of surface coating is usually desired for long-term recyclable photocatalytic performances. Yet deposition of the coatings with appropriate nanostructures persists challenging. Thermal spray processing usually triggered loss of photocatalytic anatase in the coatings. To retain anatase structure from starting TiO2 powder, in this study, cold spray was employed to deposit TiO2 nanostructured coatings using TiO2 nanoparticles as the starting feedstock. The mechanically blended Al-7.5 wt.% TiO2 powder was used as the feedstock for the coating fabrication, and Al was used as the binder for the nano-TiO2 particles. The coatings containing anatase phase were successfully fabricated and showed good long-term recyclable performance and service life. After methylene blue degradation testing for three times, the photocatalytic efficiency of the coatings still remained over 90% of the initial photocatalytic efficiency. After high-pressure gas purge and flame sweep processing, the coatings retained the initial nanostructures at their surfaces. The cold spray technical route might open a new window for making the coatings of temperature-sensitive nanosized particles for functional applications.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9

References

  1. 1.

    A. Fujishima and K. Honda, Electrochemical Photolysis of Water at a Semiconductor Electrode, Nature, 1972, 238, p 37–38.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    M. Zhai, Y. Liu, J. Huang, Y. Wang, K. Chen, Y. Fu and H. Li, Efficient Suspension Plasma Spray Fabrication of Black Titanium Dioxide Coatings with Visible Light Absorption Performances, Ceram. Int., 2019, 45, p 930–935.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    M. Bozorgtabar, M. Rahimipour and M. Salehi, Novel Photocatalytic TiO2 Coatings Produced by HVOF Thermal Spraying Process, Mater. Lett, 2010, 64(10), p 1173–1175.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    M. Winnicki, A. Baszczuk, M. Jasiorski, B. Borak and A. Malachowska, Preliminary Studies of TiO2 Nanopowder Deposition onto Metallic Substrate by Low Pressure Cold Spraying, Surf. Coat. Technol., 2019, 371, p 194–202.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    C. Orge, J.L. Faria and M.F.R. Pereira, Photocatalytic Ozonation of Aniline with TiO2-Carbon Composite Materials, J. Environ. Manag., 2017, 195, p 208–215.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    A. Mishra, A. Mehta and S. Basu, Clay Supported TiO2 Nanoparticles for Photocatalytic Degradation of Environmental Pollutants: A Review, J. Environ. Chem. Eng., 2018, 6(5), p 6088–6107.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    V.G. Parale, T. Kim, V.D. Phadtare, H.M. Yadav and H. Park, Enhanced Photocatalytic Activity of a Mesoporous TiO2 Aerogel Decorated onto Three-Dimensional Carbon Foam, J. Mol. Liq., 2019, 277, p 424–433.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    L. Lu, R. Shan, Y. Shi, S. Wang and H. Yuan, A novel TiO2/Biochar Composite Catalysts for Photocatalytic Degradation of Methyl Orange, Chemosphere, 2019, 222, p 391–398.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    A. Baszczuk, M. Jasiorski, B. Borak and J. Wodka, Insights into the Multistep Transformation of Titanate Nanotubes into Nanowires and Nanoribbons, Mater. Sci. Poland, 2016, 34(4), p 691–702.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Y. Tsuge, J. Kim, Y. Sone, O. Kuwaki and S. Shiratori, Fabrication of Transparent TiO2 Film with High Adhesion by Using Self-Assembly Methods: Application to Super-Hydrophilic Film, Thin Solid Films, 2008, 516(9), p 2463–2468.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    H. Attouche, S. Rahmane, S. Hettal and N. Kouidri, Precursor Nature and Molarities Effect on the Optical, Structural, Morphological, and Electrical Properties of TiO2 Thin Films Deposited by Spray Pyrolysis, Optik, 2020, 203, p 163985.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    T. Vladkova, O. Angelov, D.S. Stoyanova, D.N. Gospodinova, L. Gomes, A. Soares, F. Mergulhao and I. Ivanovac, Magnetron Co-Sputtered TiO2/SiO2/Ag Nanocomposite Thin Coatings Inhibiting Bacterial Adhesion and Biofilm Formation, Surf. Coat. Technol., 2020, 384, p 125322.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    B. Jeffery, M. Peppler, R.S. Lima and A. McDonald, Bactericidal Effects of HVOF-Sprayed Nanostructured TiO2 on Pseudomonas Aeruginosa, J. Therm. Spray Technol., 2010, 19, p 344–349.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    X. He, K. Ren, Y. Liu, J. Huang and H. Li, Hollow Plasma-Sprayed Spherical Nanostructured Titania Feedstock for Photocatalytic Applications, J. Therm. Spray Technol., 2018, 27, p 1532–1541.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    R. Lima and B.R. Marple, Thermal Spray Coatings Engineered from Nanostructured Ceramic Agglomerated Powders for Structural, Thermal Barrier and Biomedical Applications: A Review, J. Therm. Spray Technol., 2007, 16, p 40–63.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    N. George, M. Mahon and A. McDonald, Bactericidal Performance of Flame-Sprayed Nanostructured Titania-Copper Composite Coatings, J. Therm. Spray Technol., 2010, 19, p 1042–1053.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Y. Fu, Y. Liu and H. Li, Onion-Like Carbon Modified TiO2 Coating by Suspension Plasma Spray and Enhanced Photocatalytic Performances, J. Nanopart. Res., 2019, 21, p 182.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    J.H. Leal, Y. Cantu, D.F. Gonzalez and J.G. Parsons, Brookite and Anatase Nanomaterial Polymorphs of TiO2 Synthesized from TiCl3, Inorg. Chem. Commun., 2017, 84, p 28–32.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    A. Viscusi, M. Durante, A. Astarita, L. Boccarusso, L. Carrino and A.S. Perna, Experimental Evaluation of Metallic Coating on Polymer by Cold Spray, Procedia Manuf., 2020, 47, p 761–765.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    M. Gardon, C. Fernández-Rodríguez, D. Garzón Sousa, D.J.M. Doña-Rodríguez, S. Dosta, I.G. Cano and J.M. Guilemany, Photocatalytic Activity of Nanostructured Anatase Coatings Obtained by Cold Gas Spray, J. Therm. Spray Technol., 2014, 23, p 1135–1141.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    J. Freitag and D.W. Bahnemann, Evaluation of the Photocatalytic (Visible-Light) Activity of Cold Gas Sprayed TiO2 Layers on Metal Sheets, Phys. Status Solid A., 2014, 8(6), p 596–599.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    I. Herrmann-Geppert, P. Bogdanoff, T. Emmler, Th. Dittrich, J. Radnik, T. Klassen, H. Gutzmann and M. Schieda, Cold Gas Spraying-A Promising Technique for Photoelectrodes: The Example TiO2, Catal. Today, 2016, 260, p 140–147.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    C.J. Li, G.J. Yang, W.Y. Li, X.C. Huang, and A. Ohmori, Formation of TiO2 Photocatalyst through Cold Spraying, in Proceedings of Thermal Spray 2004, Advances in Technology and Application, Osaka, Japan, p 315-319 (2004)

  24. 24.

    I. Burlacov, J. Jirkovsky, L. Kavan, R. Ballhorn and R.B. Heimann, Cold Gas Dynamic Spraying (CGDS) of TiO2 (anatase) Powders onto Poly(Sulfone) Substrates: Microstructural Characterisation and Photocatalytic Efficiency, J. Photochem. Photobiol. A, 2007, 187(2–3), p 285–292.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    I. Herrmann-Geppert, P. Bogdanoff, H. Gutzmann, T. Dittrich, T. Emmler, R. Just, M. Schieda, F. Gärtner and T. Klassen, Cold Gas Sprayed TiO2-Based Electrodes for the Photo-Induced Water Oxidation, ECS Trans., 2014, 58(30), p 21–30.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    J.O. Kliemann, H. Gutzmann, F. Gärtner, H. Hübner, C. Borchers and T. Klassen, Formation of Cold-Sprayed Ceramic Titanium Dioxide Layers on Metal Surfaces, J. Therm. Spray Technol., 2011, 20(1–2), p 292–298.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    M. Yamada, Y. Kandori, K. Sato and M. Fukumoto, Fabrication of Titanium Dioxide Photocatalyst Coatings by Cold Spray, J. Solid Mech. Mater. Eng., 2009, 3(2), p 210–216.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    Sh.Q. Fan, Ch.J. Li, Ch.X. Li, G.J. Liu, G.J. Yang and L.Z. Zhang, Preliminary Study of Performance of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell of Nano-TiO2 Coating Deposited by Vacuum Cold Spraying, Mater. Trans., 2006, 47(7), p 1703–1709.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    A.A. Pustovalova, V.F. Pichugin, N.M. Ivanova and M. Bruns, Structural Features of N-Containing Titanium Dioxide Thin Films Deposited by Magnetron Sputtering, Thin Solid Films, 2017, 627, p 9–16.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  30. 30.

    L. Huang, J. Xu, X. Sun, Ch. Li, R. Xu, Y. Du, J. Ni, H. Cai, J. Li, Z. Hu and J. Zhang, Low-Temperature Photochemical Activation of Sol-Gel Titanium Dioxide Films for Efficient Planar Heterojunction Perovskite Solar Cells, J. Alloys Compd., 2018, 735, p 224–233.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  31. 31.

    M. Ratova, R. Klaysri, P. Praserthdam and P.J. Kelly, Visible Light Active Photocatalytic C-Doped Titanium Dioxide Films Deposited via Reactive Pulsed DC Magnetron Co-Sputtering: Properties and Photocatalytic Activity, Vacuum, 2018, 149, p 214–224.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  32. 32.

    Y. Liu, J. Huang, X. Feng and H. Li, Thermal-Sprayed Photocatalytic Coatings for Biocidal Applications: A Review, J. Therm. Spray Technol., 2020 https://doi.org/10.1007/s11666-020-01118-2

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

This research was supported by K.C. Wong Education Foundation (Grant # GJTD-2019-13) and Jiangxi Province Key Research and Development Projects of China (Grant # 20192BBE50033, 20202BBEL53031 and 20192BBHL80010).

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding authors

Correspondence to Jin Liu or Hua Li.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Liu, J., Liu, Y., Suo, X. et al. Cold Spray Construction of Nanostructured Titania Coatings for Photocatalytic Applications. J Therm Spray Tech (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11666-021-01167-1

Download citation

Keywords

  • anatase
  • cold spray
  • nanoparticles
  • photocatalytic performances
  • TiO2
  • TiO2-Al composites