In this study, a composite coating with outstanding corrosion and wear resistance was successfully produced on LA43M substrates. The composite coating was composed of cold-sprayed aluminum, anodized Al2O3 and a SiO2 sealing coating, which was defined as the MAC composite coating. The properties of the MAC composite coating were characterized by water contact angle, potentiodynamic polarization, salt spray corrosion test, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and ball-on-disk test, while the microstructure was investigated by scanning electron microscope. The wear results show that the double ceramic composite coating improves the wear resistance compared to the LA43M substrate. After sealing with polysilazane, the surface of the MAC composite coating became hydrophobic. Thus, the corrosion current density dropped to 5.4 × 10−9 A cm−2, which is by four orders of magnitude lower compared to that of the LA43M alloy. Furthermore, there was no significant change in surface roughness and profile after long-term corrosion test, demonstrating the outstanding corrosion resistance of the MAC composite coating. In addition, the MAC composite coatings presented the highest impedance loop, impedance moduli and the phase angles, hence confirming that the MAC composite coatings provided a high degree of corrosion resistance for LA43M alloy.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
The raw/processed data required to reproduce these findings cannot be shared at this time due to technical or time limitations.
M. Esmaily, J.E. Svensson, S. Fajardo, N. Birbilis, G.S. Frankel, S. Virtanen, R. Arrabal, S. Thomas, and L.G. Johansson, Fundamentals and Advances in Magnesium Alloy Corrosion, Prog. Mater Sci., 2017, 89, p 92-193
Z. Li, Q. Ren, X. Wang, Q. Kuang, D. Ji, R. Yuan, and X. Jing, Effect of Phosphate Additive on the Morphology and Anti-Corrosion Performance of Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation Coatings on Magnesium-Lithium Alloy, Corros. Sci., 2019, 157, p 295-304
M.J. Anjum, J. Zhao, V. Zahedi Asl, G. Yasin, W. Wang, S. Wei, Z. Zhao, and W. Qamar Khan, In-situ Intercalation of 8-hydroxyquinoline in Mg-Al LDH Coating to Improve the Corrosion Resistance of AZ31, Corros. Sci., 2019, 157, p 1-10
J.E. Gray and B. Luan, Protective coatings on magnesium and its alloys- a critical review, J. Alloys. Compd., 2002, 336(1-2), p 88-113
Y.-H. Sun, R.-C. Wang, C.-Q. Peng, Y. Feng, and M. Yang, Corrosion Behavior and Surface Treatment of Superlight Mg-Li Alloys, Trans. Nonferr. Metal. Soc. China, 2017, 27(7), p 1455-1475
Z. Li, Q. Kuang, X. Dong, T. Yuan, Q. Ren, X. Wang, J. Wang, and X. Jing, Characteristics of High-Performance Anti-Corrosion/Anti-Wear Ceramic Coatings on Magnesium-Lithium Alloy by Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation Surface Engineering, Surf. Coat. Technol., 2019, 375, p 600-607
A. Jangde, S. Kumar, and C. Blawert, Influence of Glycerol on Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation Coatings Evolution and on Corrosion Behaviour of Coated AM50 Magnesium Alloy, Corros. Sci., 2019, 157, p 220-246
I.L. Lehr and S.B. Saidman, Corrosion Protection of AZ91D Magnesium Alloy by a Cerium-Molybdenum Coating-the Effect of Citric Acid as an Additive, J. Magnes. Alloys., 2018, 6, p 356-365
R.-C. Zeng, L. Sun, Y.-F. Zheng, H.-Z. Cui, and E.-H. Han, Corrosion and Characterisation of Dual Phase Mg-Li-Ca alloy in Hank’s Solution: the Influence of Microstructural Features, Corros. Sci., 2014, 79, p 69-82
B. Morończyk, E. Ura-Bińczyk, S. Kuroda, J. Jaroszewicz, and R.M. Molak, Microstructure and Corrosion Resistance of Warm Sprayed Titanium Coatings with Polymer Sealing for Corrosion Protection of AZ91E Magnesium Alloy, Surf. Coat. Technol., 2019, 363, p 142-151
X. Fan, Y. Wang, B. Zou, L. Gu, W. Huang, and X. Cao, Preparation and Corrosion Resistance of MAO/Ni-P Composite Coat on Mg Alloy, Appl. Surf. Sci., 2013, 277, p 272-280
A. Atrens, G.-L. Song, M. Liu, Z. Shi, F. Cao, and M.S. Dargusch, Review of Recent Developments in the Field of Magnesium Corrosion, Adv. Eng. Materials., 2015, 17, p 400-453
Y. Song, D. Shan, R. Chen, and E.-H. Han, Corrosion Characterization of Mg-8Li Alloy in NaCl Solution, Corros. Sci., 2009, 51, p 1087-1094
C.Q. Li, D.K. Xu, X.B. Chen, B.J. Wang, R.Z. Wu, E.H. Han, and N. Birbilis, Composition and Microstructure Dependent Corrosion Behaviour of Mg-Li Alloys, Electrochim. Acta, 2018, 260, p 55-64
A. Castellanos, A. Altube, J.M. Vega, E. García-Lecina, J.A. Díez, and H.J. Grande, Effect of Different Post-Treatments on the Corrosion Resistance and Tribological Properties of AZ91D Magnesium Alloy Coated PEO, Surf. Coat. Technol., 2015, 278, p 99-107
C. Xie, H. Li, X. Zhou, and C. Sun, Corrosion Behavior of Cold Sprayed Pure Zinc Coating on Magnesium, Surf. Coat. Technol., 2019, 374, p 797-806
V. Cartigny, D. Veys-Renaux, P. Desenne, and E. Rocca, Rapid Sealing of an Alumina Nanoporous Network Grown by Anodizing and Dye-Filled, Surf. Coat. Technol., 2019, 364, p 369-376
W. Yang, D. Xu, J. Wang, X. Yao, and J. Chen, Microstructure and Corrosion Resistance of Micro Arc Oxidation Plus Electrostatic Powder Spraying Composite Coating on Magnesium Alloy, Corros. Sci., 2018, 136, p 174-179
H. Zhou, C. Li, G. Ji, S. Fu, H. Yang, X. Luo, G. Yang, and C. Li, Local Microstructure Inhomogeneity and Gas Temperature Effect in In Situ Shot-Peening Assisted Cold-Sprayed Ti-6Al-4 V Coating, J. Alloys. Compd., 2018, 766, p 694-704
S.-L. Fu, C.-X. Li, Y.-K. Wei, X.-T. Luo, G.-J. Yang, C.-J. Li, and J.-L. Li, Novel Method of Aluminum to Copper Bonding by Cold Spray, J. Therm. Spray Techn., 2018, 27, p 624-640
Q. Wang, D. Qiu, Y. Xiong, N. Birbilis, and M.-X. Zhang, High Resolution Microstructure Characterization of the Interface Between Cold Sprayed Al Coating and Mg alloy Substrate, Appl. Surf. Sci., 2014, 289, p 366-369
J. Yang, J. Yang, J. Xie, Q. Wang, and K. Qu, Improved Fatigue Crack Propagation Performance of Q355B Steel With Cold-Sprayed A5052 and Al Coatings, Surf. Coat. Technol., 2019, 378, p 125000
Y.-K. Wei, X.-T. Luo, Y. Ge, X. Chu, G.-S. Huang, and C.-J. Li, Deposition of Fully Dense Al-Based Coatings Via In situ Micro-Forging Assisted Cold Spray for Excellent Corrosion Protection of AZ31B Magnesium Alloy, J. Alloys. Compd., 2019, 806, p 1116-1126
Y. Tao, T. Xiong, C. Sun, L. Kong, X. Cui, T. Li, and G.-L. Song, Microstructure and Corrosion Performance Of A Cold Sprayed Aluminium Coating on AZ91D Magnesium Alloy, Corros. Sci., 2010, 52, p 3191-3197
M. Diab, X. Pang, and H. Jahed, The Effect of Pure Aluminum Cold Spray Coating on Corrosion and Corrosion Fatigue of Magnesium (3% Al-1% Zn) Extrusion, Surf. Coat. Technol., 2017, 309, p 423-435
S. Ngai, T. Ngai, F. Vogel, W. Story, G.B. Thompson, and L.N. Brewer, Saltwater Corrosion Behavior of Cold Sprayed AA7075 Aluminum Alloy Coatings, Corros. Sci., 2018, 130, p 231-240
F.S.D. Silva, J. Bedoya, S. Dosta, N. Cinca, I.G. Cano, J.M. Guilemany, and A.V. Benedetti, Corrosion Characteristics of Cold Gas Spray Coatings of Reinforced Aluminum Deposited Onto Carbon Steel, Corros. Sci., 2017, 114, p 57-71
C. Ma, X. Liu, and C. Zhou, Cold-Sprayed Al Coating for Corrosion Protection of Sintered NdFeB, J. Therm. Spray Techn., 2013, 23, p 456-462
F.-F. Lu, K. Ma, C.-X. Li, M. Yasir, X.-T. Luo, and C.-J. Li, Enhanced Corrosion Resistance of Cold-Sprayed and Shot-Peened Aluminum Coatings on LA43M Magnesium Alloy, Surf. Coat. Technol., 2020, 394, p 125865
X. Zhan, W. Shang, Y. Wen, Y. Li, and M. Ma, Preparation and Corrosion Resistance of a Three-Layer Composite Coatings on the Mg Alloy, J. Alloys. Compd., 2019, 774, p 522-531
L. Zeng, S. Yang, W. Zhang, Y. Guo, and C. Yan, Preparation and Characterization of a Double-Layer Coating on Magnesium Alloy AZ91D, Electrochim. Acta, 2010, 55, p 3376-3383
V. Ezhilselvi, J.N. Balaraju, and S. Subramanian, Chromate and HF Free Pretreatment for MAO/Electroless Nickel Coating on AZ31B Magnesium Alloy, Surf. Coat. Technol., 2010, 325, p 270-276
J. Lee, Y. Kim, H. Jang, and W. Chung, Cr2O3 Sealing of Anodized Aluminum Alloy by Heat Treatment, Surf. Coat. Technol., 2014, 243, p 34-38
X. Zhao, W. Zhang, Y. Wang, Q. Liu, J. Yang, L. Zhang, and F. He, Fabrication of Al2O3 by Anodic Oxidation and Hydrothermal Synthesis of Strong-Bonding Hydroxyapatite Coatings on its Surface, Appl. Surf. Sci., 2019, 470, p 959-969
F. Chen, Effect of Graphene on Micro-Structure and Properties of MAO Coating Prepared on Mg-Li Alloy, Int. J. Electrochem. Sci., 2017, 12, p 6081-6091
N. Hu, X. Dong, X. He, J.F. Browning, and D.W. Schaefer, Effect of Sealing on the Morphology of Anodized Aluminum Oxide, Corros. Sci., 2015, 97, p 17-24
M.W. Liao and C.K. Chung, The Role and Effect of Residual Stress on Pore Generation During Anodization of Aluminium Thin Films, Corros. Sci., 2013, 74, p 232-239
S.J. Garcia-Vergara, P. Skeldon, G.E. Thompson, and H. Habazaki, Stress Generated Porosity in Anodic Alumina Formed in Sulphuric Acid Electrolyte, Corros. Sci., 2007, 49, p 3772-3782
J. Li, C.-X. Li, Q.-Y. Chen, J.-T. Gao, J. Wang, G.-J. Yang, and C.-J. Li, Super-Hydrophobic Surface Prepared by Lanthanide Oxide Ceramic Deposition Through PS-PVD Process, J. Therm. Spray Techn., 2017, 26, p 398-408
Q. Jin, G. Tian, J. Li, Y. Zhao, and H. Yan, The Study on Corrosion Resistance of Superhydrophobic Magnesium Hydroxide Coating on AZ31B Magnesium Alloy, Colloids Surf. A Physicochem. Eng. Aspects, 2019, 577, p 8-16
G. Zhang, L. Wu, A. Tang, Y. Ma, G.-L. Song, D. Zheng, B. Jiang, A. Atrens, and F. Pan, Active Corrosion Protection by a Smart Coating Based on a MgAl-Layered Double Hydroxide on a Cerium-Modified Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation Coating on Mg Alloy AZ31, Corros. Sci., 2018, 139, p 370-382
S. Leleu, B. Rives, J. Bour, N. Causse, and N. Pébère, On the Stability of the Oxides Film Formed on a Magnesium Alloy Containing Rare-Earth Elements, Electrochim. Acta, 2018, 290, p 586-594
S. Chen, S. Zhao, M. Chen, X. Zhang, J. Zhang, X. Li, H. Zhang, X. Shen, J. Wang, and N. Huang, The Anticorrosion Mechanism of Phenolic Conversion Coating Applied on Magnesium Implants, Appl. Surf. Sci., 2019, 463, p 953-967
Y. Zhang, S. Tang, J. Hu, and T. Lin, Formation mechanism and corrosion resistance of the hydrophobic coating on anodized magnesium, Corros. Sci., 2016, 111, p 334-343
Q.J. Zhu, K. Wang, X.H. Wang, and B.R. Hou, Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy Analysis of Cold Sprayed and Arc Sprayed Aluminium Coatings Serviced in Marine Environment, Surf. Eng., 2013, 28, p 300-305
G. Duan, L. Yang, S. Liao, C. Zhang, X. Lu, Y. Yang, B. Zhang, Y. Wei, T. Zhang, B. Yu, X. Zhang, and F. Wang, Designing for the Chemical Conversion Coating with High Corrosion Resistance and Low Electrical Contact Resistance on AZ91D Magnesium Alloy, Corros. Sci., 2018, 135, p 197-206
Z. Cui, F. Ge, Y. Lin, L. Wang, L. Lei, H. Tian, M. Yu, and X. Wang, Corrosion Behavior of AZ31 Magnesium Alloy in the Chloride Solution Containing Ammonium Nitrate, Electrochim. Acta, 2018, 278, p 421-437
J. Jayaraj, S. Amruth Raj, A. Srinivasan, S. Ananthakumar, U.T.S. Pillai, N.G.K. Dhaipule, and U.K. Mudali, Composite Magnesium Phosphate Coatings for Improved Corrosion Resistance Of Magnesium AZ31 Alloy, Corros. Sci., 2016, 113, p 104-115
Y.-K. Wei, Y.-J. Li, Y. Zhang, X.-T. Luo, and C.-J. Li, Corrosion Resistant Nickel Coating with Strong Adhesion on AZ31B Magnesium Alloy Prepared by an In situ Shot-Peening-Assisted Cold Spray, Corros. Sci., 2018, 138, p 105-115
L.-Y. Cui, S.-D. Gao, P.-P. Li, R.-C. Zeng, F. Zhang, S.-Q. Li, and E.-H. Han, Corrosion Resistance of a Self-Healing Micro-Arc Oxidation/Polymethyltrimethoxysilane Composite Coating on Magnesium Alloy AZ31, Corros. Sci., 2017, 118, p 84-95
S. Wang, H. Peng, Z. Shao, Q. Zhao, and N. Du, Sealing of Anodized Aluminum with Phytic Acid Solution, Surf. Coat. Technol., 2016, 286, p 155-164
T. Kikuchi, K. Kunimoto, H. Ikeda, D. Nakajima, R.O. Suzuki, and S. Natsui, Fabrication of Anodic Porous Alumina Via Galvanostatic Anodizing in Alkaline Sodium Tetraborate Solution and their Morphology, J. Electroanal. Chem., 2019, 846, p 113-152
J. Lee, S.-Y. Jung, V.S. Kumbhar, S. Uhm, H.-J. Kim, and K. Lee, Formation of Aluminum Oxide Nanostructures Via Anodization of Al3104 Alloy and their Wettability Behavior for Self-cleaning Application, Catal. Today, 2019, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cattod.2019.04.062
S. Yang, Y. Sun, Z. Jia, P. Ren, C. Liu, Q. Yang, and G. Zhao, Fabrication and Characterization of Alumina Fiber by Anodic Oxidation and Chemical Dissolution Processes, Ceram. Int., 2019, 45, p 12727-12733
K. Chernyakova, I. Vrublevsky, V. Klimas, and A. Jagminas, Effect of Joule Heating on Formation of Porous Structure of Thin Oxalic Acid Anodic Alumina films, J. The Electrochem. Soc., 2018, 165, p E289-E293
The authors would like to thank the National Science Fund of China for financial support (No. 51761145108).
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
About this article
Cite this article
Lu, FF., Ma, K., Li, Cx. et al. Enhanced Corrosion Resistance of a Double Ceramic Composite Coating Deposited by a Novel Method on Magnesium-Lithium Alloy (LA43M) Substrates. J Therm Spray Tech (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11666-020-01143-1
- cold-sprayed Al coating
- corrosion resistance
- LA43M alloy
- wear resistance