Cavitation erosion resistance of NiTi claddings by tungsten inert gas with/without Cu, Nb and Cu + Nb interlayers was investigated. The NiTi-TIG and NiTi-Nb-TIG claddings cannot resist the cavitation erosion due to the presence of cracks and brittle phase Fe2Ti. The employment of Cu and Cu + Nb interlayers can inhibit the welding cracks and brittle phase Fe2Ti. The ranking according to the cavitation erosion resistance is NiTi plate > NiTi-Cu-TIG cladding ≈ NiTi-Cu-Nb-TIG cladding > stainless steel. The superior cavitation erosion resistance of NiTi-Cu-TIG and NiTi-Cu-Nb-TIG claddings results from high hardness, superelasticity, no cracks and no brittle Fe2Ti phases. However, the corrosion resistance of NiTi claddings with Cu and Cu + Nb interlayers is slightly reduced due to the existence of the second phases and pores, compared with the NiTi plate.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
G. Rondelli, B. Vicentini, and A. Gigada, The Corrosion Behavior of Nickel Titanium Shape Memory Alloys, Corros. Sci., 1990, 30, p 805–812
J.P. Oliveira, R.M. Miranda, and F.M. Braz Fernandes, Welding and Joining of NiTi Shape Memory Alloys: A Review, Prog. Mater. Sci., 2017, 88, p 412–466
T. Deepan Bharathi Kannan, T. Ramesh, and P. Sathiya, A Review of Similar and Dissimilar Micro-joining of Nitinol, Jom, 2016, 68, p 1227–1245
C.W. Chan, H.C. Man, and F.T. Cheng, Fatigue Behavior of Laser-Welded NiTi Wires in Small-Strain Cyclic Bending, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 2013, 559, p 407–415
R.H. Richman, Cavitation Erosion of Two NiTi Alloys, Wear, 1992, 157, p 401–407
W. Liu, Y.G. Zheng, C.S. Liu, and Z.M. Yao, Cavitation Erosion Characteristics of a NiTi Alloy, Metall, Mater. Trans. A, 2004, 35A, p 356–362
J.S. Carlton, Marine Propellers and Propulsion, 1st ed., Butterworth Heinemann, Oxford, 1994, p 199
M. Bitzer, N. Rauhut, G. Mauer, M. Bram, R. Vassen, and H.P. Buchkremer, Cavitation-Resistant NiTi Coatings Produced by Low-Pressure Plasma Spraying (LPPS), Wear, 2015, 328, p 369–377
J.M. Guilemany, N. Cinca, S. Dosta, and A.V. Benedetti, Corrosion Behaviour of Thermal Sprayed Nitinol Coatings, Corros. Sci., 2009, 51, p 171–180
Z.P. Shi, J.Q. Wang, Z.B. Wang, Y.X. Qiao, T.Y. Xiong, and Y.G. Zheng, Cavitation Erosion and Jet Impingement Erosion Behavior of the NiTi Coating Produced by Air Plasma Spraying, Coatings, 2018, 8, p 346
M.M. Verdian, K. Raeissi, and M. Salehi, Corrosion Performance of HVOF and APS Thermally Sprayed NiTi Intermetallic Coatings in 3.5% NaCl Solution, Corros. Sci., 2010, 52, p 1052–1059
K.Y. Chiu, F.T. Cheng, and H.C. Man, Cavitation Erosion Resistance of AISI, 316L Stainless Steel Laser Surface-Modified with NiTi, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 2005, 392, p 348–358
H. Hitoshi, I. Takashi, S. Hirofumi, and M. Akira, Cavitation Erosion Mechanism of NiTi Coatings Made by Laser Plasma Hybrid Spraying, Wear, 1999, 231, p 272–278
L.M. Yang, A.K. Tieu, D.P. Dunne, S.W. Huang, H.J. Li, and D. Wexler, Cavitation Erosion Resistance of NiTi Thin Films Produced by Filtered Arc Deposition, Wear, 2009, 267, p 233–243
M. Kabla, H. Seiner, M. Musilova, M. Landa, and D. Shilo, The Relationships Between Sputter Deposition Conditions, Grain Size, and Phase Transformation Temperatures in NiTi Thin Films, Acta Mater., 2014, 70, p 79–91
C.J. Huang, X.C. Yan, W.Y. Li, W.B. Wang, C. Verdy, and M.P. Planche, Post-spray Modification of Cold-Sprayed Ni-Ti Coatings by High-Temperature Vacuum Annealing and Friction Stir Processing, Appl. Surf. Sci., 2018, 451, p 56–66
Z.P. Shi, Z.B. Wang, J.Q. Wang, Y.X. Qiao, H.N. Chen, T.Y. Xiong, and Y.G. Zheng, Effect of Ni Interlayer on Cavitation Erosion Resistance of NiTi Cladding by Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG) Surfacing Process, Acta Metall. Sin. (Engl. Lett.), 2020, 33, p 415–424
F.T. Cheng, K.H. Lo, and H.C. Man, NiTi Cladding on Stainless Steel by TIG Surfacing Process Part I. Cavitation Erosion Behavior, Surf. Coat. Technol., 2003, 172, p 308–315
A. Ikai, K. Kimura, and H. Tobushi, TIG Welding and Shape Memory Effect of TiNi Shape Memory Alloy, J. Intell. Mater. Syst. Struct., 1996, 7, p 646–655
G. Fox, N. Johnson, N.M. Wereley, R. Hahnlen, and M.J. Dapino, Fusion Welding of Nickel–Titanium and 304 Stainless Steel Tubes: Part II: Tungsten Inert Gas Welding, J. Intell. Mater. Syst. Struct., 2012, 24, p 962–972
M. Mehrpouya, A. Gisario, and M. Elahinia, Laser Welding of NiTi Shape Memory Alloy: A Review, J. Manuf. Process., 2018, 31, p 162–186
W. Zhang, S. Ao, J.P. Oliveira, Z. Zeng, Y.F. Huang, and Z. Luo, Microstructural Characterization and Mechanical Behavior of NiTi Shape Memory Alloys Ultrasonic Joints Using Cu Interlayer, Mater. (Basel), 2018, 11, p 1830
J.P. Oliveira, Z. Zeng, C. Andrei, F.M. Braz Fernandes, R.M. Miranda, and A.J. Ramirez, Dissimilar Laser Welding of Superelastic NiTi and CuAlMn Shape Memory Alloys, Mater. Des., 2017, 128, p 166–175
A. Shojaei Zoeram and S.A.A. Akbari Mousavi, Effect of Interlayer Thickness on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of as Welded Ti6Al4V/Cu/NiTi Joints, Mater. Lett., 2014, 133, p 5–8
H.M. Li, D.Q. Sun, X.Y. Gu, P. Dong, and Z.P. Lv, Effects of the Thickness of Cu Filler Metal on the Microstructure and Properties of Laser-Welded TiNi Alloy and Stainless Steel Joint, Mater. Des., 2013, 50, p 342–350
M. Moorehead, Z.F. Yu, L. Borrel, J. Hu, Z.H. Cai, and A. Couet, Comprehensive Investigation of the Role of Nb on the Oxidation Kinetics of Zr-Nb Alloys, Corros. Sci., 2019, 155, p 173–181
K. Zhang, T.B. Zhang, X.H. Zhang, and L. Song, Corrosion Resistance and Interfacial Morphologies of a High Nb-Containing TiAl Alloy with and Without Thermal Barrier Coatings in Molten Salts, Corros. Sci., 2019, 156, p 139–146
B. Fu, K. Feng, and Z.G. Li, Study on the Effect of Cu Addition on the Microstructure and Properties of NiTi Alloy Fabricated by Laser Cladding, Mater. Lett., 2018, 220, p 148–151
Z. Zeng, B. Panton, J.P. Oliveira, A. Han, and Y.N. Zhou, Dissimilar Laser Welding of NiTi Shape Memory Alloy and Copper, Smart Mater. Struct., 2015, 24, p 125036
X.K. Zhao, L. Lan, H.B. Sun, J.H. Huang, and H. Zhang, Mechanical Properties of Additive Laser-Welded NiTi Alloy, Mater. Lett., 2010, 64, p 628–631
J.P. Oliveira, B. Panton, Z. Zeng, C.M. Andrei, Y. Zhou, and R.M. Miranda, Laser Joining of NiTi to Ti6Al4V Using a Niobium Interlayer, Acta Mater., 2016, 105, p 9–15
S. Kundu and S. Chatterjee, Evolution of Interface Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Titanium/304 Stainless Steel Diffusion Bonded Joint Using Nb Interlayer, ISIJ Int., 2010, 50, p 1460–1465
D.S. Grummon, J.A. Shaw, and J. Foltz, Fabrication of Cellular Shape Memory Alloy Materials by Reactive Eutectic Brazing Using Niobium, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 2006, 438–440, p 1113–1118
ASTM G32-10 Standard Test Method for Cavitation Erosion Using Vibratory Apparatus (ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, USA, 2010)
Y.X. Qiao, Z.H. Tian, X. Cai, J. Chen, Y.X. Wang, and Q.N. Song, Cavitation Erosion Behaviors of a Nickel-Free High-Nitrogen Stainless Steel, Tribol. Lett., 2019, 67, p 1
C.E. Correa, G.L. García, A.N. García, W. Bejarano, A.A. Guzmán, and A. Toro, Wear Mechanisms of Epoxy-Based Composite Coatings Submitted to Cavitation, Wear, 2011, 271, p 2274–2279
T. Owa, T. Shinoda, and Y. Kato, NiTi Coatings Produced by the Transferred Plasma Arc Welding Process and Their Wear Characteristics, Weld. Int., 2002, 16, p 276–283
C. Velmurugan and V. Senthilkumar, The Effect of Cu Addition on the Morphological, Structural and Mechanical Characteristics of Nanocrystalline NiTi Shape Memory Alloys, J. Alloys Compd., 2018, 767, p 944–954
H.J. Yi, Y.J. Lee, and K.O. Lee, TIG Dressing Effects on Weld Pores and Pore Cracking of Titanium Weldments, Metals, 2016, 6, p 243
J. Pouquet, R.M. Miranda, L. Quintino, and S. Williams, Dissimilar Laser Welding of NiTi to Stainless Steel, Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol., 2011, 61, p 205–212
J.R. Weng, J.T. Chang, K.C. Chen, and J.L. He, Solid/Liquid Erosion Behavior of Gas Tungsten Arc Welded TiNi Overlay, Wear, 2003, 255, p 219–224
Y.X. Qiao, J. Chen, H.L. Zhou, Y.X. Wang, Q.N. Song, and H.B. Li, Effect of Solution Treatment on Cavitation Erosion Behavior of High-Nitrogen Austenitic Stainless Steel, Wear, 2019, 424–425, p 70–77
S.K. Wu, H.C. Lin, and C.H. Yeh, A Comparison of the Cavitation Erosion Resistance of TiNi Alloys, SUS304 Stainless Steel and Ni-Based Self-fluxing Alloy, Wear, 2000, 244, p 85–93
F.T. Cheng, K.H. Lo, and H.C. Man, NiTi Cladding on Stainless Steel by TIG Surfacing Process Part II. Corrosion Behavior, Surf. Coat. Technol., 2003, 172, p 316–321
Z.B. Wang, H.X. Hu, Y.G. Zheng, W. Ke, and Y.X. Qiao, Comparison of the Corrosion Behavior of Pure Titanium and its Alloys in Fluoride-Containing Sulfuric Acid, Corros. Sci., 2016, 103, p 50–65
M.N. Mokgalaka, A.P.I. Popoola, and S.L. Pityana, In Situ Laser Deposition of NiTi Intermetallics for Corrosion Improvement of Ti–6Al–4V Alloy, Trans. Nonferrous Met. Soc. China, 2015, 25, p 3315–3322
Y.X. Qiao, D.K. Xu, S. Wang, Y.J. Ma, J. Chen, Y.X. Wang, and H.N. Zhou, Corrosion and Tensile Behaviors of Ti-4Al-2 V-1Mo-1Fe and Ti-6Al-4V Titanium Alloys, Metals, 2019, 9, p 1213
This work was funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Numbers: 51801218). The authors would like to acknowledge Huaining Chen, Hang Liang, and Zhaoxuan Zhang for preparing NiTi cladding by TIG surfacing process.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
About this article
Cite this article
Shi, Z.P., Wang, Z.B., Chen, F.G. et al. Cavitation Erosion and Corrosion Behavior of NiTi Cladding with Cu and Nb Interlayers. J. of Materi Eng and Perform (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11665-020-04901-y
- tungsten inert gas surfacing process