The feasibility of processing silicon carbide (SiC) and boron carbide (B4C) using a 2.45 GHz single-mode microwave system has been investigated. In order to determine the appropriate sintering conditions, samples were processed under various electric/magnetic (E/H) field ratios. Proportional 50% E/H-field ratios and 100% H-field conditions resulted in higher sample temperatures up to 1500 °C under equivalent microwave power. Sinterability was improved by adding B4C and carbon to SiC, but limited to a thin outer layer of the pellet. While partial densification was observed under all conditions, isolated regions of full densification in microwave-processed B4C samples were observed under 100% H-field mode. Microstructural analysis of microwave-processed SiC with and without additives indicated non-uniform sintering, while B4C showed evidence of relatively homogeneous microstructures.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
R. Raj, Joule Heating during Flash-Sintering, J. Eur. Ceram. Soc., 2012, 32, p 2293-2301
E.A. Olevsky, S.M. Rolfing, and A.L. Maximenko, Flash (Ultra-Rapid) Spark-Plasma Sintering of Silicon Carbide, Sci. Rep., 2016, 6, p 33408
K.I. Rybakov, E.A. Olevsky, and E.V. Krikun, Microwave Sintering: Fundamentals and Modeling, J. Am. Ceram. Soc., 2013, 96(4), p 1003-1020
R. Pavlacka, C. Brennan, V. Blair, R. Brennan, C. Fountzoulas, J. Cheng, and D. Agrawal, Single-Mode Microwave Sintering of Er:Al2O3, Process. Prop. Adv. Ceram. Compos. VII: Ceram. Trans., 2016, 252, p 3-11
R.R. Mishra and A.K. Sharma, Microwave-Material Interaction Phenomena: Heating Mechanisms, Challenges and Opportunities in Material Processing, Compos.: Part A, 2016, 81, p 78-97
M. Madhan and G. Prabhakaran, Microwave Versus Conventional Sintering: Microstructure and Mechanical Properties ofAl2O3-SiC Ceramic Composites, Boletín de la Sociedad Española de Cerámica y Vidrio, 2019, 58, p 14-22
M. Oghbaei and O. Mirzaee, Microwave Versus Conventional Sintering: A Review of Fundamentals, Advantages and Applications, J. Alloys Compd., 2010, 494, p 175-189
X.-J. Gao, J.-W. Cao, L.-F. Cheng, D.-M. Yan, C. Zhang, and P. Man, Effect of Carbon Content on Mechanical Properties of SiC/B4C Prepared by Reaction Sintering, J. Inorg. Mater., 2015, 30, p 102
X.-J. Gao, J.-W. Cao, L.-F. Cheng, D.-M. Yan, C. Zhang, P. Man, C. Wang, F. Huang, Y. Jiang, Y. Zhou, L. Du, and G. Mera, A Novel Oxidation Resistant SiC/B4C/C Nanocomposite Derived from a Carborane-Containing Conjugated Polycarbosilane, J. Am. Ceram. Soc., 2012, 95, p 71-74
X.-J. Gao, L.-F. Cheng, J.-W. Cao, D.-M. Yan, C. Zhang, P. Man, J.-F. Qu, Y.-W. Zhou, and S.-J. Sun, Effect of Carbon Contents on Microstructure of B4C/SiC Composites, Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. Rapid Commun., 2015, 9, p 482-487
R. Rocha and F. Melo, Pressureless Sintering of B4C-SiC Composites for Armor Applications, Ceram. Eng. Sci. Proc., 2010, 30(2010), p 113-119
Z. Zhang, X. Du, W. Wang, Z. Fu, and H. Wang, Preparation of B4C-SiC Composite Ceramics Through Hot Pressing Assisted by Mechanical Alloying, Int. J. Refract. Met. Hard Mater., 2013, 41, p 270-275
C.H. Jung and C.H. Kim, Sintering and Characterization of Al2O3-B4C Composites, J. Mater. Sci., 1991, 26, p 5037-5040
X. Lin and P.D. Ownby, Pressureless Sintering of B4C Whisker Reinforced Al2O3 Matrix Composites, J. Mater. Sci., 2000, 35, p 411-418
G. Gorny, M. Raczka, L. Stobierski, L. Wojnar, and R. Pampuch, Microstructure Property Relationship in B4C-β-SiC Materials, Solid State Ion, 1997, 101, p 953-958
L. Stobierski and A. Gubernat, Sintering of Silicon Carbide II. Effect of Boron, Ceram. Int., 2003, 29, p 355-361
P.T.B. Shaffer, Solubility of Boron in Alpha Silicon Carbide, Mater. Res. Bull., 1970, 5, p 519-521
G. Mugnai, G. Beltrami, and L. Piotti Minoccari, Pressureless Sintering and Properties of Alpha SiC-B4C Composite, J. Eur. Ceram. Soc., 2001, 21, p 633-638
R. Hamminger, Carbon Inclusions in Sintered Silicon Carbide, J. Am. Ceram. Soc., 1989, 72, p 1741-1744
J.A. Menéndez, A. Arenillas, B. Fidalgo, Y. Fernández, L. Zubizarreta, E.G. Calvo, and J.M. Bermúdez, Microwave Heating Processes Involving Carbon Materials, Fuel Process. Technol., 2010, 91, p 1-8
B. Vos, J. Mosman, Y. Zhang, E. Poels, and A. Bliek, Impregnated Carbon as a Susceptor Material for Low Loss Oxides in Dielectric Heating, J. Mater. Sci., 2003, 38, p 173-182
S. Ahmadbeygi, M. Khodaei, A. Nemati, and O. Yaghobizadeh, Fabrication of SiC Body by Microwave Sintering Process, J. Mater. Sci.: Mater. Electron., 2017, 28, p 5675-5685
C. Singhal, Q. Murtaza, and P. Alam, Microwave Sintering of Advanced Composites Materials: A Review, Mater. Today Proc., 2018, 5, p 24287-24298
V.L. Blair, S.V. Raju, M. Kornecki, and R.E Brennan, Single-Mode Microwave Sintering of Traditionally Resistant Materials, ARL Tech. Rep., 8466 (2017)
J. Cheng, R. Roy, and D. Agrawal, Radically Different Effects on Materials by Separated Microwave Electric and Magnetic Fields, Mater. Res. Innov., 2002, 5, p 170-177
J. Cheng, D. Agrawal, S. Komarneni, M. Mathis, and R. Roy, Microwave Processing of WC-Co Composites and Ferroic Titanates, Mater. Res. Innov., 1997, 1, p 44-52
E. Breval, J. Cheng, D. Agrawal, P. Gigl, A. Dennis, R. Roy, and A. Papworth, Comparison Between Microwave and Conventional Sintering of WC/Co Composite, Mater. Sci. Eng. A- Struct. Mater. Prop. Microstruct. Process., 2005, 391, p 285-295
Thuault, S. Marinel, E. Savary, R. Heuguet, S. Saunier, D. Goeuriot, and D. Agrawal, Processing of Reaction-Bonded B4C-SiC Composites in a Single-Mode Microwave Cavity, Ceram. Int., 2013, 39, p 1215-1219
S. Brunauer, P.H. Emmett, and E. Teller, Adsorption of Gases in Multimolecular Layers, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1938, 60, p 309-319
K.S.W. Sing, D.H. Everett, R.A.W. Haul, L. Moscou, R.A. Pierotti, J. Rouquerol, and T. Siemieniewska, Reporting Physical Adsorption Data for Gas/Solid Systems with Special Reference to the Determination of Surface Area and Porosity (IUPAC Recommendations 1984), Pure Appl. Chem., 1984, 57(1985), p 603-619
J. Rouquerol, D. Avnir, C.W. Fairbridge, D.H. Everett, J.H. Haynes, N. Pernicone, J.D.F. Ramsay, K.S.W. Sing, and K.K. Unger, Recommendations for the Characterization of Porous Solids (IUPAC Recommendations 1994), Pure Appl. Chem., 1994, 66(1994), p 1739-1758
D. Demirskyi and O. Vasylkiv, Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Boron Suboxide Ceramics Prepared by Pressureless Microwave Sintering, Ceram. Int., 2016, 42, p 14282-14286
The authors sincerely thank Dr. Jerry LaSalvia (CTMB, ARL) for helpful discussions, Dr. Victoria Blair (CTMB, ARL) for help with initial ball milling of SiC-B4C-C powders, Dr. Steve Kilczewski (CTMB, ARL) for help with cold isostatic pressing of samples, and Ms. Aubrey Fry (CTMB, ARL) and Ms. Carli Moorehead (CTMB, ARL) for help with powder characterization measurements. S.V. Raju was sponsored by the CCDC Army Research Laboratory (ARL) under Cooperative Agreement No. W911NF-16-2-0050. The views and conclusions contained in this document are those of the authors and should not be interpreted as representing the official policies, either expressed or implied, of ARL or the US Government. The US Government is authorized to reproduce and distribute reprints for government purposes notwithstanding any copyright notation herein. The research reported in this document was performed in connection with contract/instrument W911QX-16-D-0014 with the ARL. The views and conclusions contained in this document are those of SURVICE Engineering and ARL. Citation of manufacturer’s or trade names does not constitute an official endorsement or approval of the use thereof. The US Government is authorized to reproduce and distribute reprints for government purposes notwithstanding any copyright notation hereon.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
This article is an invited paper selected from presentations at the “11th International Symposium on Green and Sustainable Technologies for Materials Manufacturing and Processing,” held during Materials Science & Technology (MS&T’19), September 29–October 3, 2019, in Portland, OR, and has been expanded from the original presentation.
About this article
Cite this article
Raju, S.V., Kornecki, M. & Brennan, R.E. Sinterability of Silicon Carbide and Boron Carbide under Single-Mode Microwave Fields. J. of Materi Eng and Perform (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11665-020-04895-7
- microwave processing
- x-ray diffraction