Advertisement

Microstructural Characteristics and Mechanical Properties of an Electron Beam-Welded Ti/Cu/Ni Joint

  • Feng Zhang
  • Ting Wang
  • Siyuan Jiang
  • Binggang Zhang
  • Jicai Feng
Article

Abstract

Electron beam welding experiments of TA15 titanium alloy to GH600 nickel superalloy with and without a copper sheet interlayer were carried out. Surface appearance, microstructure and phase constitution of the joint were examined by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction analysis. Mechanical properties of Ti/Ni and Ti/Cu/Ni joint were evaluated based on tensile strength and microhardness tests. The results showed that cracking occurred in Ti/Ni electron beam weldment for the formation of brittle Ni-Ti intermetallics, while a crack-free electron beam-welded Ti/Ni joint can be obtained by using a copper sheet as filler metal. The addition of copper into the weld affected the welding metallurgical process of the electron beam-welded Ti/Ni joint significantly and was helpful for restraining the formation of Ti-Ni intermetallics in Ti/Ni joint. The microstructure of the weld was mainly characterized by a copper-based solid solution and Ti-Cu interfacial intermetallic compounds. Ti-Ni intermetallic compounds were almost entirely suppressed. The hardness of the weld zone was significantly lower than that of Ti/Ni joint, and the tensile strength of the joint can be up to 282 MPa.

Keywords

electron beam welding GH600 nickel alloy microstructure mechanical property TA15 titanium alloy 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (51405098) and State Key Lab of Advanced Welding and Joining, Harbin Institute of Technology.

References

  1. 1.
    X.G. Fan, H. Yang, S.L. Yan, P.F. Gao, and J.H. Zhou, Mechanism and Kinetics of Static Globularization in TA15 Titanium Alloy with Transformed Structure, J. Alloy. Compd., 2012, 533(12), p 1–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    L. Yang, B. Wang, G. Liu, H. Zhao, and W. Xiao, Behavior and Modeling of Flow Softening and Ductile Damage Evolution in Hot Forming of TA15 Alloy Sheets, Mater. Des., 2015, 85, p 135–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    E.O. Ezugwu and Z.M. Wang, Titanium Alloys and Their Machinability—A Review, J. Mater. Process. Technol., 1997, 68(3), p 262–274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    I. Gurappa, Protection of Titanium Alloy Components against High Temperature Corrosion, Mater. Sci. Eng. A., 2003, 356(1), p 372–380CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Z. Liu, Q. Bi, Y. Guo, J. Yan, and Z. Yang, Convective heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics of near-critical-pressure hydrocarbon fuel in a minichannel, Appl. Therm. Eng., 2013, 51(1–2), p 1047–1054CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    S.A.P. Ii, A. Shyam, R.O. Ritchie, and W.W. Milligan, High Frequency Fatigue Crack Propagation Behavior of a Nickel-Base Turbine Disk Alloy, Int. J. Fatigue, 1999, 21(7), p 725–731CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    J. De Keyzer, G. Cacciamani, N. Dupin, and P. Wollants, Thermodynamic Modeling and Optimization of the Fe-Ni-Ti System, Calphad Comput. Coupling Phase Diagr. Thermochem., 2009, 33(1), p 109–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    H. He, S. Lin, C. Yang, C. Fan, and Z. Chen, Combination Effects of Nocolok Flux with Ni Powder on Properties and Microstructures of Aluminum-Stainless Steel TIG Welding-Brazing Joint, J. Mater. Eng. Perform., 2013, 22(11), p 3315–3323CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    T. Wang, B. Zhang, H. Wang, and J. Feng, Microstructures and Mechanical Properties of Electron Beam-Welded Titanium-Steel Joints with Vanadium, Nickel, Copper and Silver Filler Metals, J. Mater. Eng. Perform., 2014, 23(4), p 1498–1504CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    S. Chatterjee, T.A. Abinandanan, and K. Chattopadhyay, Microstructure Development during Dissimilar Welding: Case of Laser Welding of Ti with Ni Involving Intermetallic Phase Formation, J. Mater. Sci., 2006, 41(3), p 643–652CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    B. Alemán, I. Gutiérrez, and J.J. Urcola, Interface Microstructures in the Diffusion Bonding of a Titanium Alloy Ti 6242 to an INCONEL 625, Metall. Mater. Trans. A., 1995, 26(2), p 437–446CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    H. Zuhailawati, A.M. Saeed, A.B. Ismail, Z. Samad, and A.T. Ariga, Spot Resistance Welding of a Titanium/Nickel Joint with Filler Metal, Weld. J., 2010, 89(5), p 101s–104sGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Z. Sun and R. Karppi, The Application of Electron Beam Welding for the Joining of Dissimilar Metals: an Overview, J. Mater. Process. Technol., 1996, 59, p 257–267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    H. Zhang, P. He, J. Feng, and H. Wu, Interfacial Microstructure and Strength of the Dissimilar Joint Ti 3 Al/TC4 Welded by the Electron Beam Process, Mater. Sci. Eng. A., 2006, 425(1), p 255–259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    J. Kim and Y. Kawamura, Electron Beam Welding of Zr-Based BMG/Ni Joints: Effect of Beam Irradiation Position on Mechanical and Microstructural Properties, J. Mater. Process. Technol., 2008, 207(1), p 112–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    M. Gao, S.W. Mei, Z.M. Wang, X.Y. Li, and X.Y. Zeng, Characterisation of Laser Welded Dissimilar Ti/steel Joint Using Mg Interlayer, Sci. Technol. Weld. Join., 2012, 17(4), p 269–276CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    T. Wang, B. Zhang, J. Feng, and Q. Tang, Effect of a Copper Filler Metal on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Electron Beam Welded Titanium–stainless Steel Joint, Mater. Charact., 2012, 73(7), p 104–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    B. Zhang, T. Wang, G. Chen, and J. Feng, Contact Reactive Joining of TA15 and 304 Stainless Steel Via a Copper Interlayer Heated by Electron Beam with a Beam Deflection, J. Mater. Eng. Perform., 2012, 21(10), p 2067–2073CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    I. Tomashchuk, P. Sallamand, H. Andrzejewski, and D. Grevey, The Formation of Intermetallics in Dissimilar Ti6Al4 V/copper/AISI, 316 L Electron Beam and Nd:YAG Laser Joints, Intermetallics, 2011, 19(10), p 1466–1473CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    B. Alemán, I. Gutiérrez, and J.J. Urcola, Interface Microstructures in the Diffusion Bonding of a Titanium Alloy Ti 6242 to an INCONEL 625, Metall. Mater. Trans. A, 1995, 26(2), p 437–446CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    J.L. Murray, The Cu-Ti(copper-Titanium) System, J. Phase Equilib., 1983, 4, p 81–95Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    P. Villars, A. Prince, and H. Okamota, Handbook of Ternary Alloy Phase Diagram, 1st ed., ASM International, Pittsburgh, 1998Google Scholar

Copyright information

© ASM International 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Feng Zhang
    • 1
  • Ting Wang
    • 1
    • 2
  • Siyuan Jiang
    • 1
  • Binggang Zhang
    • 1
  • Jicai Feng
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Special Welding TechnologyHarbin Institute of Technology at WeihaiWeihaiChina
  2. 2.State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding and JoiningHarbin Institute of TechnologyHarbinChina

Personalised recommendations