Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance

, Volume 27, Issue 4, pp 1642–1653 | Cite as

Characterization of Microstructure and Wear Resistance of PEO Coatings Containing Various Microparticles on Ti6Al4V Alloy

  • Xinyi Li
  • Chaofang Dong
  • Qing Zhao
  • Yu Pang
  • Fasong Cheng
  • Shuaixing Wang


Titania-based composite coatings were prepared by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) treatment of Ti6Al4V alloy in electrolyte with α-Al2O3, Cr2O3 or h-BN microparticles in suspension. The microstructure, composition of PEO composite coatings were analyzed by SEM, EDS and XRD. The wear resistance of composite ceramic coatings was studied by ball-on-disk wear test at ambient temperature and 300 °C. The results showed that the addition of microparticles accelerated the growth rate of PEO coating and changed the microstructure and composition of PEO coating. PEO coating was porous and mainly composed of rutile-TiO2, anatase-TiO2 and Al2TiO5. PEO/α-Al2O3 (Cr2O3 or h-BN) composite coating only had small micropores and appeared some α-Al2O3 (Cr2O3 or h-BN) phase. Besides, the addition of α-Al2O3 (Cr2O3 or h-BN) microparticles greatly improved the wear resistance of PEO coating. At ambient temperature, abrasive wear dominated the wear behavior of PEO coating, but abrasive wear and adhesive peel simultaneously happened at 300 °C. Whether at ambient temperature or 300 °C, PEO composite coating had better wear resistance than PEO coating. Besides, PEO/h-BN composite coating outperformed other composite coatings regardless of the temperature.


composite ceramic coating microparticles plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) titanium alloy wear resistance 



The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support of National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51361025) and Natural Science Foundation of Jiangxi Province (Grant No. 20171BAB216006).


  1. 1.
    C.X. Cui, B.M. Hu, L.C. Zhao, and S.J. Liu, Titanium Alloy Production Technology, Market Prospects and Industry Development, Mater. Des., 2011, 32, p 1684–1981CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    M. Peters, J. Kumpfert, C.H. Ward, and C. Leyens, Titanium Alloys for Aerospace Applications, Adv. Eng. Mater., 2003, 5, p 419–427CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    V. Antia, N. Saito, and O. Takai, Microarc Plasma Treatment of Titanium and Aluminum Surfaces in Electrolytes, Thin Solid Films, 2006, 507, p 364–368Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    W. Xue, C. Wang, R. Chen, and Z. Deng, Structure and Properties Characterization of Ceramic Coatings Produced on Ti6Al4V Alloy by Microarc Oxidation in Aluminate Solution, Mater. Lett., 2002, 52, p 435–441CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    H. Khanmojammadi, S.R. Allahkaram, A.L. Munoz, and N. Towhidi, The Influence of Current Density and Frequency on the Microstructure and Corrosion Behavior of Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation Coatings on Ti6Al4V, J. Mater. Eng. Perform., 2017, 26, p 931–944CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Y.M. Wang, T.Q. Lei, L.X. Guo, and B.L. Jiang, Fretting Wear Behaviour of Microarc Oxidation Coatings Formed on Titanium Alloy Against Steel in Unlubrication and Oil Lubrication, Appl. Surf. Sci., 2006, 252, p 8113–8120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    H. Habazaki, S. Tsunekawa, E. Tsuji, and T. Nakayama, Formation and Characterization of Wear-resistant PEO Coatings Formed on β-titanium Alloy at Different Electrolyte Temperatures, Appl. Surf. Sci., 2012, 259, p 711–718CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Y.M. Wang, B.L. Jiang, L.X. Guo, and T.Q. Lei, Tribological Behavior of Microarc Oxidation Coatings Formed on Titanium Alloys Against Steel in Dry and Solid Lubrication Sliding, Appl. Surf. Sci., 2006, 252, p 2989–2998CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    X.Z. Lin, M.H. Zhu, J.F. Zheng, J. Luo, and J.L. Mo, Fretting Wear of Micro-arc Oxidation Coating Prepared on Ti6Al4V Alloy, Trans. Nonferrous Met. Soc. China, 2010, 20, p 537–546CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    F. Zhou, Y. Wang, H. Ding, M. Wang, M. Yu, and Z. Dai, Friction Characteristic of Micro-arc Oxidative Al2O3 Coatings Sliding Against Si3N4 Balls in Various Environments, Surf. Coat. Technol., 2008, 202, p 3808–3814CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Y.M. Wang, B.L. Jiang, T.Q. Lei, and L.X. Guo, Microarc Oxidation and Spraying Graphite Duplex Coating Formed on Titanium Alloy for Antifriction Purpose, Appl. Surf. Sci., 2005, 246, p 214–221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    C. Martini, L. Ceschini, F. Tartertini, J.M. Paillard, and J.A. Curran, PEO Layers Obtained From Mixed Aluminate-phosphate Baths on Ti-6Al-4V Dry Sliding Behaviour and Influence of A PTFE Topcoat, Wear, 2010, 269, p 747–756CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    J. Liang, P. Wang, L. Hu, and J. Hao, Tribological Properties of Duplex MAO/DLC Coatings on Magnesium Alloy Using Combined Microarc Oxidation and Filtered Cathodic Arc Deposition, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 2007, 454, p 164–169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    M. Aliofkhazraei, A.S. Rouhaghdam, and T. Shahrabi, Abrasive Wear Behaviour of Si3N4/TiO2 Nanocomposite Coatings Fabricated by Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation, Surf. Coat. Technol., 2010, 205, p S41–S46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    C. Wang, J. Hao, Y. Xing, C. Guo, and H. Chen, High Temperature Oxidation Behavior of TiO2 + ZrO2 Composite Ceramic Coatings Prepared by Microarc Oxidation on Ti6Al4V Alloy, Surf. Coat. Technol., 2015, 261, p 201–207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    E. Matykina, R. Arrabal, F. Monfort, P. Skeldon, and G.E. Thompson, Incorporation of Zirconia into Coatings Formed by DC Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation of Aluminium in Nanoparticle Suspensions, Appl. Surf. Sci., 2008, 255, p 2830–2839CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    R. Arrabal, E. Matykina, P. Skeldon, and G.E. Thompson, Incorporation of Zirconia Particles into Coatings Formed on Magnesium by Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation, J. Mater. Sci., 2008, 43, p 1532–1538CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    M.R. Bayat, H. Zargara, R. Molaeia, F. Golestani-Farda, E. Kajbafvala, and S. Zanganeh, One Step Growth of WO3-Loaded Al2O3 Micro/nano-porous Films by Micro Arc Oxidation, Colloids Surf. A, 2010, 355, p 187–192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    M. Mu, J. Liang, X. Zhou, and Q. Xiao, One-step Preparation of TiO2/MoS2 Composite Coating on Ti6Al4V Alloy by Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation and Its Tribological Properties, Surf. Coat. Technol., 2013, 214, p 124–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    S.X. Wang, N. Du, D.X. Liu, and Q. Zhao, Growing Characters and Tribological Properties of Microarc Oxidation Composite Coating Containing Cr2O3 Microparticles on Ti6Al4V Alloy, Rare Metal Mater. Eng., 2013, 42, p 1402–1406Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    S.X. Wang, Q. Zhao, D.X. Liu, and N. Du, Microstructure and Elevated Temperature Tribological Behavior of TiO2/Al2O3 Composite Ceramic Coating Formed by Microarc Oxidation of Ti6Al4V Alloy, Surf. Coat. Technol., 2015, 272, p 343–349CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    O.A. Leon, M.H. Staia, and H.E. Hintermann, High Temperature Wear of an Electroless Ni-P-BN (h) Composite Coating, Surf. Coat. Technol., 2003, 163, p 578–584CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    B. Podgornik, T. Kosec, A. Kocijan, and C. Donik, Tribological Behaviour and Lubrication Performance of Hexagonal Boron Nitride (h-BN) as A Replacement for Graphite in Aluminium Forming, Tribol. Int., 2015, 81, p 267–275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    A.L. Yerokhin, I.O. Snizhko, and A. Leyland, Discharge Characterization in Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation of Aluminium, J. Phys. D Appl. Phys., 2003, 36, p 2110–2120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    E. Matykina, A. Berkani, P. Skeldon, and G.E. Thompson, Real-time Imaging of Coating Growth during Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation of Titanium, Electrochim. Acta, 2007, 53, p 1987–1994CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    F. Monfort, A. Berkani, E. Matykina, P. Skeldon, G.E. Thompson, H. Habazaki, and K. Shimizu, Development of Anodic Coatings on Aluminium under Sparking Conditions in Silicate Electrolyte, Corros. Sci., 2007, 49, p 672–693CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    C.S. Duleav, I.O. Golosnoy, J.A. Curran, and T.W. Clyne, Characterization of Discharge Events During Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation, Surf. Coat. Technol., 2009, 203, p 3410–3419CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Z.P. Yao, Y.F. Liu, Y.J. Xu, Z.H. Jiang, and F.P. Wang, Effects of Cathode Pulse at High Frequency on Structure and Composition of Al2TiO5 Ceramic Coatings on Ti Alloy by Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation, Mater. Chem. Phys., 2011, 126, p 227–231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Z. Li and S. Di, The Microstructure and Wear Resistance of Microarc Oxidation Composite Coatings Containing Nano-hexagonal Boron Nitride (HBN) Particles, J. Mater. Eng. Perform., 2017, 26, p 1551–1561CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    X.F. Yao, F.Q. Xie, Y. Han, G.X. Zhao, and X.Q. Wu, Effects of Temperature on Wear Properties and Friction Coefficient of TC4 Alloy, Rare Metal Mater. Eng., 2012, 41, p 1463–1466Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    J.A. Curran and T.W. Clyne, Thermo-Physical Properties of Plasma Electrolytic Oxide Coatings on Aluminium, Surf. Coat. Technol., 2005, 199, p 168–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    M.W. Barsoum, Fundamentals of Ceramics, Institute of Physics Publishing, Bristol, 2002Google Scholar

Copyright information

© ASM International 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Xinyi Li
    • 1
  • Chaofang Dong
    • 1
  • Qing Zhao
    • 2
  • Yu Pang
    • 3
  • Fasong Cheng
    • 2
  • Shuaixing Wang
    • 2
  1. 1.Corrosion and Protection CenterUniversity of Science and Technology BeijingBeijingChina
  2. 2.National Defense Key Discipline Laboratory of Light Alloy Processing Science and TechnologyNanchang Hangkong UniversityNanchangChina
  3. 3.Foshan PolytechnicFoshanChina

Personalised recommendations