Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance

, Volume 26, Issue 4, pp 1856–1864 | Cite as

Analysis of Particle Distribution in Milled Al-Based Composites Reinforced by B4C Nanoparticles

  • Hamid Alihosseini
  • Kamran Dehghani


In the present work, high-energy ball milling was employed to synthesize Al-(5-10 wt.%)B4C nanocomposite. To do this, two sizes of particles of 50 nm as nanoparticles (NPs) and 50 μm as coarse particles (CPs) were used. The morphology and microstructure of the milled powders were characterized using particle size analyzer, SEM, TEM and EDX techniques. It was found that milling time, B4C particles size and their content strongly affect the characteristics of powders during milling process. The breaking and cold welding of powders was recognized as two main competitive actions during the milling process that influence the microstructural evolutions. It was found that the presence of CPs led to the formation of microcracks which promote the fracture process of Al powders. The dominated mechanisms during the fabrication of composites and nanocomposites were discussed. Also, the theoretical issues regarding the changes in morphology and distribution of B4C particles in CPs and NPs are clarified.


Al-based composites B4C nanoparticles high-energy ball milling nanoparticle distribution 



The authors would like to acknowledge Amirkabir University of Technology for supports of this research.


  1. 1.
    J.W. Kaczmar, K. Pietrzak, and W. Wlosinski, The Production and Application of Metal Matrix Composite Materials, J. Mater. Process. Technol., 2000, 106, p 58–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    D.B. Miracle, Metal Matrix Composites—From Science to Technological Significance, Compost. Sci. Technol., 2005, 65, p 2526–2540CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    R. Ekici, M.K. Apalak, and M. Yildirim, Indentation Behavior of Functionally Graded Al–SiC Metal Matrix Composites with Random Particle Dispersion, Compost. Part B Eng, 2011, 42, p 1497–1507CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    S. Gopalakrishnan and N. Murugan, Production and Wear Characterisation of AA6061 Matrix Titanium Carbide Particulate Reinforced Composite by Enhanced Stir Casting Method, Compost. Part B Eng., 2012, 43, p 302–308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    T.S. Srivatsan, I.A. Ibrahim, F.A. Mohamed, and E.J. Lavernia, Processing Techniques for Particulate-Reinforced Metal Aluminum Matrix Composites, J. Mater. Sci., 1991, 265, p 965–975Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    V. Domnich, S. Reynaud, R.A. Haber, and M. Chhowalla, Boron Carbide: Structure, Properties, and Stability Under Stress, J. Am. Ceram. Soc., 2011, 94, p 3605–3628CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    X.G. Chen, R. Hark, Development of Al–30%B4C Metal Matrix Composites for Neutron Absorber Material, ed. by W. Yin, S.K. Das, in Proceedings of aluminum alloys: fabrication, characterization and applications, TMS, 2008, pp. 3–9Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    A. Baradeswaran and A. Elaya Perumal, Influence of B4C on the Tribological and Mechanical Properties of Al 7075–B4C Composites, Compost. Part B-Eng., 2013, 54, p 146–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    J.M. Torralba, C.E. Costa, and F. Velasco, P/M Aluminum Matrix Composites: An Overview, J. Mater. Process. Technol., 2003, 133, p 203–206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    J. Onoro, M.D. Salvador, and L.E.G. Cambronero, High-Temperature Mechanical Properties of Aluminum Alloys Reinforced with Boron Carbide Particles, Mater. Sci. Eng., A, 2009, 499, p 421–426CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    A. Yazdani and E. Salahinejad, Evolution of Reinforcement Distribution in Al–B4C Composites During Accumulative Roll Bonding, Mater. Des., 2011, 32, p 3137–3142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    C. Nie, J. Gu, J. Liu, and D. Zhang, Investigation on Microstructures and Interface Character of B4C Particles Reinforced 2024Al Matrix Composites Fabricated by Mechanical Alloying, J. Alloys Compd., 2008, 454, p 118–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    M. Alizadeh, M.H. Paydar, and F. Sharifian Jazi, Structural Evaluation and Mechanical Properties of Nanostructured Al/B4C Composite Fabricated by ARB Process, Compost. Part B-Eng., 2013, 44, p 339–343CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    I. Kerti and F. Toptan, Microstructural Variations in Cast B4C-Reinforced Aluminum Matrix Composites (AMCs), Mater. Lett., 2008, 62, p 1215–1218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    J. Abenojar, F. Velasco, and M.A. Martinez, Optimization of Processing Parameters for the Al + 10%B4C System Obtained by Mechanical Alloying, J. Mater. Process. Technol., 2007, 184, p 441–446CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    C. Suryanarayana, Mechanical Alloying and Milling, Prog. Mater Sci., 2001, 46, p 1–184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    M. Abdellahi, H. Bahmanpour, and M. Bahmanpour, The Best Conditions for Minimizing the Synthesis Time of Nanocomposites During High Energy Ball Milling: Modeling and Optimizing, Ceram. Int., 2014, 40(7), p 9675–9692CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    S. Bathula, R.C. Anandani, A. Dhar, and A.K. Srivastava, Microstructural Features and Mechanical Properties of Al 5083/SiCp Metal Matrix Nanocomposites Produced by High Energy Ball Milling and Spark Plasma Sintering, Mater. Sci. Eng., A, 2012, 545, p 97–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    L. Lu, M.O. Lai, and W. Liang, Magnesium Nanocomposite Via Mechanochemical Milling, Compos. Sci. Technol., 2004, 64, p 2009–2014CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    A. Santos-Beltrán, R. Goytia-Reyes, H. Morales-Rodriguez, V. Gallegos-Orozco, M. Santos-Beltrán, F. Baldenebro-Lopez, and R. Martínez-Sánchez, Characterization of Al–Al4C3 Nanocomposites Produced by Mechanical Milling, Mater. Charact., 2015, 106, p 368–374CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    K.G. Raghavendra, A. Dasgupta, P. Bhaskar, K. Jayasankar, C.N. Athreya, P. Panda, S. Saroja, V. Subramanya Sarma, and R. Ramaseshan, Synthesis and Characterization of Fe-15 wt.% ZrO2 Nanocomposite Powders by Mechanical Milling, Powder Technol., 2016, 287, p 190–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    S.M. Zebarjad and S.A. Sajjadi, Microstructure Evaluation of Al–Al2o3 Composite Produced by Mechanical Alloying Method, Mater. Des., 2006, 27, p 684–688CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    M.A. Taha, A.H. Nassar, and M.F. Zawrah, Effect of Milling Parameters on Sinterability, Mater. Chem. Phys., 2016, 181, p 26–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    A. Abdollahi, A. Alizadeh, and H.R. Baharvandi, Dry Sliding Tribological Behavior and Mechanical Properties of Al2024–5 wt%B4C Nanocomposite Produced by Mechanical Milling and Hot Extrusion, Mater. Des., 2014, 55, p 471–481CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    A. Alizadeh and E. Taheri-Nassaj, Wear Behavior of Nanostructured Al and Al–B4C Nanocomposites Produced by Mechanical Milling and Hot Extrusion, Tribol. Lett., 2011, 44, p 59–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    T. Varol and A. Canakci, Effect of Particle Size and Ratio of B4C Reinforcement on Properties and Morphology of Nanocrystalline Al2024-B4C Composite Powders, Powder Technol., 2013, 246, p 462–472CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Y. Li, W. Liu, V. Ortalan, W.F. Li, Z. Zhang, and R. Vogt, HRTEM and EELS Study of Aluminum Nitride in Nanostructured Al 5083/B4C Processed Via Cryomilling, Acta Mater., 2010, 58, p 1732–1740CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Y.E. Jichun, H.E. Jianhong, and M.S. Julie, Cryomilling for the Fabrication of a Particulate B4C Reinforced Al Nanocomposite: Part I. Effects of Process Conditions on Structure, Metall. Mater. Trans. A, 2006, 37, p 3099–3109CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© ASM International 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Mining and Metallurgical Engineering DeptartmentAmirkabir University of TechnologyTehranIran

Personalised recommendations