Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance

, Volume 26, Issue 4, pp 1540–1550 | Cite as

Mechanically Assisted Solid-State Mixing and Spark Plasma Sintering for Fabrication of Bulk Nanocomposite (WC/7(10Co/4Cr))-Based ZrO2 Systems

  • M. Sherif El-Eskandarany
  • Abdulsalam Al-Hazza
  • L. A. Al-Hajji


Mechanically induced solid-state mixing, using high-energy ball milling technique, was employed for preparing WC/7 wt.% (10Cr/4Cr) solid-solution powders. The solid-solution powders obtained after 50 h of milling were mechanically mixed for 50 h together with small weight fractions (0-7 wt.%) of (ZrO2 + 1.5 wt.% Y2O3) powders. The powders were then consolidated in vacuum under a uniaxial pressure of 30 MPa at 1250 °C, using spark plasma sintering. The consolidated bulk samples were nearly full dense and maintained their nanocrystalline structure after this consolidation step. The results showed that the consolidated samples over the entire range of ZrO2 concentrations (0–7 wt.%) had low values for Young’s modulus (297–318 GPa) due to their nanocrystalline structures. Moreover, the WC/7 wt.% (10Cr/4Cr)/7(ZrO2-1.5 mol.% Y2O3) showed excellent wear resistance, indexed by its low-value friction coefficient (~0.29).


fracture toughness mechanical ball milling nanoindentations nanotechnology powder technology 



Appreciation is extended to the Kuwait Government through the Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research for purchasing all of the equipment used in the present work, using the budget dedicated for the Project (P-KISR-06-04) led by the first author of Establishing Nanotechnology Center in KISR.


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Copyright information

© ASM International 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Sherif El-Eskandarany
    • 1
  • Abdulsalam Al-Hazza
    • 1
  • L. A. Al-Hajji
    • 1
  1. 1.Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials Program, Energy and Building Research CenterKuwait Institute for Scientific ResearchKuwaitState of Kuwait

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