Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance

, Volume 26, Issue 4, pp 1758–1768 | Cite as

High-Cycle Fatigue of High-Strength Low Alloy Steel Q345 Subjected to Immersion Corrosion for Mining Wheel Applications

  • Sante Dicecco
  • William Altenhof
  • Henry Hu
  • Richard Banting


In an effort to better understand the impact of material degradation on the fatigue life of mining wheels made of a high-strength low alloy carbon steel (Q345), this study seeks to evaluate the effect of surface corrosion on the high-cycle fatigue behavior of the Q345 alloy. The fatigue behavior of the polished and corroded alloy was investigated. Following exposure to a 3.5 wt.% NaCl saltwater solution, polished and corroded fatigue specimens were tested using an R.R. Moore rotating-bending fatigue apparatus. Microstructural analyses via both optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that one major phase, α-iron phase, ferrite, and one minor phase, colony pearlite, existed in the extracted Q345 alloy. The results of the fatigue testing showed that the polished and corroded specimens had an endurance strength of approximately 295 and 222 MPa, respectively, at 5,000,000 cycles. The corroded surface condition resulted in a decrease in the fatigue strength of the Q345 alloy by 24.6%. Scanning electron microscope fractography indicated that failure modes for polished and corroded fatigue specimens were consistent in the high-cycle low loading fatigue regime. Conversely, SEM fractography of low-cycle high-loading fatigue specimens found considerable differences in fracture surfaces between the corroded and polished fatigue specimens.


alloy steel Q345 corrosion endurance strength fractography high-cycle fatigue mining wheels S-N curves 



The financial support from Work Safety Insurance Board (WSIB) of Ontario, Canada is gratefully acknowledged. Additionally, the in-kind support from GoldCorp’s Musselwhite Mine is also acknowledged. Mr. Sante DiCecco would also like to acknowledge the financial support from the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC).


  1. 1.
    Department of Consumer and Employment Protection, Safety and Health Alert; 13/97 Split Ring Wheel Fatality, Government of Western Australia, Perth, 1997Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Fatality, Mechanic Dies While Changing a Tire Mounted on a Multi-piece Split Rim Wheel—Massachusetts. Assessment and Control Evaluation (FACE) Program, Massachusetts Case Report: 07-MA-058 (2007).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Mines and Aggregates Safety and Health Association, Multi-Piece Rims Leader Guide, Workplace Safety North, Ontario, 2000Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Occupational Health and Safety, Hazard Alert; Truck Tire Explosions Claim Two More Lives, Saskatchewan Ministry of Labour Relations and Workplace Safety, Saskatchewan, 2004Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Occupational Health and Safety, Hazard Alert; Tire Mount/Demount of Heavy Vehicles, Saskatchewan Ministry of Labour Relations and Workplace Safety, Saskatchewan, 1999Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Worker Struck By Multi-Piece Rim During Wheel Installation. Fatality Assessment and Control Evaluation (FACE) Program, Alaska Case Report: 03AK006 (2003).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Worker Killed While Inflating a Tire Mounted on a Multi-Piece Rim—Massachusetts. FACE (Fatality Investigation and Control Evaluation) Facts, vol. 7, no. 2 (2004).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Y. Zhang and C. Fleek, Metallurgical Failure Analysis of Cracked Wheel Rim, Bodycote Materials Testing Canada Inc., Cambridge, 2008Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    ASTM A572, Standard Specification for High-Strength Low-Alloy Columbium-Vanadium Structural Steel, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, 2013Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Y. Liu and S. Mahadevan, Stochastic Fatigue Damage Modeling Under Variable Amplitude Loading, Int. J. Fatigue, 2007, 29, p 1149–1161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    J.X. Liu, S.H. Chen, J. Liu, W.L. Zhang, and X. Chen, Evaluation of Anti-Weathering Performance of Different Construction Steels by In-Door Cyclic Corrosion Tests, J. Iron. Steel Res. Int., 2007, 14(5), p 296–300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    X. Zhang, A. Guo, S. Yang, X. Wang, Y. Zhao, Y. Tian, D. Zou, and X. He, Study on the Microstructure, Mechanical Properties and Corrosion Resistance of a Novel HSLA Steel, Kang T’ieh/Iron and Steel (Peking), 2005, 40, p 417–421Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Y. Wu, B. Cao, and Z. Fang, SCC Susceptivility of Steel 16Mn in Nitrate Solution and Its Mechanism, J. Univ. Sci. Technol. Beijing, 2002, 9(1), p 31–35Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    G. Singh, A Survey of Corrosivity of Underground Mine Waters from Indian Coal Mines, Int. J. Mine Water, 1986, 5(1), p 21–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    A. Higginson and R.T. White, A Preliminary Survey of the Corrosivity of Water in South African Gold Mines, J. South Afr. Inst. Min. Metall., 1983, 83(6), p 133–141Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    ASTM E466-07, Standard Practice for Conducting Force Controlled Constant Amplitude Axial Fatigue Tests of Metallic Materials, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, 2007Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    ASTM Standard G31, Laboratory Immersion Corrosion Testing of Metals, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, 2012Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    T.J. Collins, ImageJ for Microscopy, Biotechniques, 2007, 43(1), p S25–S30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Z. Li, A. Tonkovich, S. DiCecco, W. Altenhof, H. Hu, and R. Banting, Development and Validation of a FE Model of a Mining Vehicle Tyre, Int. J. Veh. Des., 2014, 65(2/3), p 176–201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    R. Budynas, K. Nisbett (Eds.), Fatigue Failure Resulting from Variable Loading, Shigley’s Mechanical Engineering Design, McGraw-Hill, New York, 2010, p 257–345Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    ASTM Standard E739, Standard Practice for Statistical Analysis of Linear or Linearized Stress-Life (S-N) and Strain-Life (e-N) Fatigue Data, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, 2010Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    D.C. Montgomery and G.C. Runger, Applied Statistics and Probability for Engineers, 5th ed., Wiley, New York, 2011Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    B.C. Reed, Linear Least-Squares Fits with Errors in Both Coordinates, Am. J. Phys., 1989, 7(57), p 642–646CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    H.J. Sutherland, P.S. Veers, The Development of Confidence Limits For Fatigue Strength Data, in 2000 ASME Wind Energy Symposium, Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA, 2000.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    P.C. Gope, Scatter Analysis of Fatigue Life and Prediction of S-N Curve, J. Fail. Anal. Prev., 2012, 12, p 507–517CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© ASM International 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sante Dicecco
    • 1
  • William Altenhof
    • 1
  • Henry Hu
    • 1
  • Richard Banting
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Mechanical, Automotive and Materials EngineeringUniversity of WindsorWindsorCanada
  2. 2.Workplace Safety NorthNorth BayCanada

Personalised recommendations