Attempts to improve the application performance of noncontact silver (Ag) screen-printing paste for crystalline silicon solar cells, especially in terms of solderability, depend heavily on controlling the properties of the glass additive therein. Taking PbO–B2O3–SiO2–RxOy glasses as an example, this work demonstrates an improvement in the Ag paste due to the RxOy (e.g., ZnO, Bi2O3, Al2O3, and MgO) component. The RxOy components were found to help improve the sintering compactness of the Ag paste. The inclusion of the different RxOy components resulted in obvious differences in the soldering state of the sintered Ag grid. Microscopic observations revealed that the soldering state was related to the covering of the solder on the Ag grid and the growth rate of the intermetallic compound Ag3Sn during soldering. Comparatively, the sintered Ag grid was soldered more firmly when the glass containing the Bi2O3 or Al2O3 component was used in the Ag paste. This is due to the higher coverage of solder on these Ag grids and the appropriate growth rate of Ag3Sn. Considering these findings, the functions of the RxOy components are discussed comprehensively.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
Q. Che, H. Yang, L. Lu, and Y. Wang, J. Alloys Compd. 549, 221 (2013).
Q. Ma, S. Ma, J. Bai, and H. Wang, RSC Adv. 7, 47500 (2017).
J. Qin, W. Zhang, S. Bai, and Z. Liu, Appl. Surf. Sci. 376, 52 (2016).
K.K. Hong, S.B. Cho, J.S. You, J.W. Jeong, S.M. Bea, and J.Y. Huh, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93, 898 (2009).
M. Köntges, I. Kunze, S. Kajari-Schröder, X. Breitenmoser, and B. Bjørneklett, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95, 1131 (2011).
V. Sharma and S.S. Chandel, Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 27, 753 (2013).
D.L. King, M.A. Quintana, J.A. Kratochvil, D.E. Ellibee, and B.R. Hansen, Prog. Photovolt. 8, 241 (2000).
S.B. Rane, P.K. Khanna, T. Seth, G.J. Phatak, D.P. Amalnerka, and B.K. Das, Mater. Chem. Phys. 82, 237 (2003).
J. Zhou, N. Xu, H. Yang, and Q. Zhang, Proc. Eng. 94, 1 (2014).
T.L. Yang, K.Y. Huang, S. Yang, H.H. Hsieh, and C.R. Kao, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 123, 139 (2014).
H. Shao, A. Wu, Y. Bao, Z. Yue, and G. Zou, Trans. Nonferrous Met. Soc. China 27, 722 (2017).
J. Zhang, G. Li, X. Yuan, H. Zhao, Y. Yang, H. Li, and H. Tong, J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 30, 7209 (2019).
J.H. Kim, H.Y. Koo, Y.N. Ko, and Y.C. Kang, J. Alloys Compd. 497, 259 (2010).
A. Kalio, M. Leibinger, A. Filipovic, K. Krüger, M. Glatthaar, and J. Wilde, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 106, 51 (2012).
H. Wang, S. Ma, Q. Ma, X. Cheng, H. Wang, and J. Bai, J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 28, 6936 (2017).
B.E. Taylor, J.J. Felten, S.J. Horowitz, J.R. Larry, and R.M. Rosenberg, Act. Passive Electron. Compon. 9, 67 (1981).
V.V. Golubkov, P.A. Onushchenko, and V.L. Stolyarova, Glass Phys. Chem. 39, 624 (2013).
E. Mansour, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 358, 454 (2012).
D. Singh, K. Singh, G. Singh, S. Mohan, M. Arora, and G. Sharma, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 20, 553 (2008).
B.Y. Lee, T.L. Hoang, S.B. Cho, J.Y. Huh, and Y.S. Lee, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 51, 10NA12.1 (2012).
Q. Yang, J. Huang, and J. Zou, Mater. Sci. Forum 817, 582 (2015).
H. Doweidar, G. El-Damrawi, E. Mansour, and R.E. Fetouh, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 358, 941 (2012).
M. Liu, H. Zhou, H. Zhu, Z. Yue, and J. Zhao, J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 23, 2130 (2012).
Y. Zhang, Y. Yang, J. Zheng, W. Hua, and G. Chen, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 91, 3410 (2008).
M. Prudenziati, B. Morten, B. Forti, A.F. Gualtieri, and G. Mihai Dilliway, Int. J. Inorg. Mater. 3, 667 (2001).
H. Lee and Y.F. Chen, J. Alloys Compd. 509, 2510 (2011).
B. Taylor, J. Felten, and J. Larry, IEEE Trans. Compon. Hybrids Manuf. Technol. 4, 504 (1980).
This study was supported by the National Key Research and Development Project (No. 2018YFB1500301).
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
Electronic supplementary material
Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material.
About this article
Cite this article
Li, H., Tong, H., Zhang, J. et al. Investigation on PbO–B2O3–SiO2–RxOy Glasses Applied in Noncontact Silver Paste for Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells. Journal of Elec Materi (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11664-020-08281-w
- Silver paste
- crystalline silicon solar cells
- intermetallic compound