Mechanical Reliability of the Epoxy Sn-58wt.%Bi Solder Joints with Different Surface Finishes Under Thermal Shock
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The effect of thermal shock on the mechanical reliability of epoxy Sn-58wt.%Bi composite (epoxy Sn-58wt.%Bi) solder joints was investigated with different surface-finished substrates. Sn-58wt.%Bi-based solder has been considered as a promising candidate for low-temperature solder among various lead-free solders. However, Sn-58wt.%Bi solder joints can be easily broken under impact conditions such as mechanical shock, drop tests, and bending tests because of their poor ductility. Therefore, previous researchers have tried to improve the mechanical property of Sn-58wt.%Bi solder by additional elements and mixtures of metal powder and epoxy resin. Epoxy Sn-58wt.%Bi solder paste was fabricated by mixing epoxy resin and Sn-58wt.%Bi solder powder to enhance the mechanical reliability of Sn-58wt.%Bi solder joints. The epoxy Sn-58wt.%Bi solder paste was screen-printed onto various printed circuit board surfaces finished with organic solder preservatives (OSP), electroless nickel immersion gold (ENIG), and electroless nickel electroless palladium immersion gold (ENEPIG). The test components were prepared by a reflow process at a peak temperature of 190°C. The thermal shock test was carried out under the temperature range of − 40 to 125°C to evaluate the reliability of Sn-58wt.%Bi and epoxy Sn-58wt.%Bi solder joints. The OSP-finished sample showed a relatively higher mechanical property than those of ENIG and ENEPIG after thermal shock. The average number of cycles for epoxy Sn-58wt.%Bi solder with the OSP surface finish were 6 times higher than that for Sn-58wt.%Bi solder with the same finish. The microstructures of the solder joints were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, and the composition of the intermetallic compound (IMC) layer was analyzed by using energy dispersive spectrometry. Cu6Sn5 IMC was formed by the reaction between Sn-58wt.%Bi solder and a OSP surface-finished Cu after the reflow process. Ni3Sn4 IMC and (Ni, Pd)3Sn4 IMC were formed at the solder joints between the ENIG and solder, and between ENEPIG surface finish and solders, respectively.
KeywordsSn-58wt.%Bi solder epoxy solder thermal shock test reliability surface finish
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This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education (2017R1D1A1B03035587). This work was supported by “Human Resources Program in Energy Technology” of the Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning (KETEP), granted financial resource from the Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy, Republic of Korea (No. 20174030201800).
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