Improved Magnetic, Dielectric and Optical Properties of PbTi1−xFe x O3 (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.60) System
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In this study, we describe an improvement of room temperature ferromagnetism achieved in a PbTi1−xFe x O3 (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.60) system and discuss a correlation between structural, magnetic, dielectric and optical properties. Pure PbTiO3 , which crystallizes in a tetragonal structure, evolved towards a cubic structure with increases in Fe content. Magnetic measurements showed that all Fe substituted samples are ferromagnetic at room temperature and maximum magnetization at 7 kOe increases with increases in Fe content. The origin and improvement of ferromagnetism is ascribed to the F-center exchange mechanism. The temperature dependence of dielectric behavior showed typical ferroelectric behavior, but ferroelectric transition temperature remained above our maximum measuring temperature. The improvement in dielectric properties of the PbFe x Ti1−xO3 system may be attributed to increases of resistivity and activation energy. The decrease in band gap with increase in Fe substitution is ascribed to the decrease in c/a ratio, indicating that the optical band gap is affected by the degree of structural disorder in the PbFe x Ti1−xO3 system.
KeywordsStructural properties magnetic properties dielectric properties optical properties
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The authors of the manuscript certify that we have no affiliations with or involvement in any organization or entity with any financial interest (such as honoraria; educational grants; participation in speakers’ bureaus; membership, employment, consultancies, stock ownership, or other equity interest; and expert testimony or patent-licensing arrangements), or non-financial interest (such as personal or professional relationships, affiliations, knowledge or beliefs) in the subject matter or materials discussed in this manuscript.
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