In situ studies of two separate events of the peritectic phase transition during continuous casting, the peritectic reaction and the peritectic transformation, were performed using high-temperature confocal scanning laser microscopy (HTCSLM). The interface migration velocities during the peritectic transformation at different cooling rates were analyzed in situ by measuring the migration distance of the interface vs time. Moreover, the solute distributions near the moving liquid/solid interface during the peritectic reaction and the peritectic transformation were predicted using the commercial software package diffusion-controlled transformation. The results revealed that the images of HTCSLM clearly recorded these two separate events: the peritectic reaction (L + δ → γ) and the peritectic transformation (L → γ and δ → γ). In the initial stage of the peritectic reaction, the austenite (γ) phase was observed to nucleate at the liquid/δ-ferrite (L/δ) interface and then grow along the periphery of primary δ phases. Upon further cooling, these emerging γ phases gradually isolated the liquid and primary δ phases. Subsequently, the laterally growth of the γ phase was regarded as the peritectic transformation. The growth rate of the γ phase was governed by the liquid to γ and δ to γ phase transformations. As the cooling rate increased, the peritectic reaction was observed to occur at lower temperature. Higher cooling rates enhanced the migration rates of the L/γ and γ/δ interfaces during the peritectic transformation. Meanwhile, an interesting massive transformation of δ into γ phase was observed to occur at a cooling rate of 60 °C/min. All primary δ phases were quickly covered by wrinkled γ phases in a short time. Based on the assumption of the solute incomplete diffusion in the liquid phase, the predicted results revealed that the enrichment of carbon near the L/δ, L/γ, and γ/δ interfaces increased as the cooling rate increased. An increase in the cooling rate exacerbated the carbon segregation of the interface during continuous solidification, causing a nucleation suppression of the γ phase. In turn, the increasing carbon enrichment accelerated the interface migration with the diffusion of large amounts of solute across the interface, causing an increase in the driving force for the peritectic transformation.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
S.C. Moon, Ph.D. Thesis, University of Wollongong, 2015.
 K. Hechu, C. Slater, B. Santillana, S. Clark, S. Sridhar, Mater. Charact., 2017, vol. 133, pp. 25-32.
D. Zhang, M. Strangwood, Mater. Sci. Technol., 2019, 2019, pp. 1-10.
 A. Grill, J. Brimacombe, Ironmaking Steelmaking, 1976, vol. 3, pp. 76-79.
 P. Presoly, R. Pierer, C. Bernhard, Metall. Mater. Trans. A, 2013, vol. 44, pp. 5377-88.
 Y. Arai, T. Emi, H. Fredriksson, H. Shibata, Metall. Mater. Trans. A, 2005, vol. 36, pp. 3065-74.
H. Nassar, Ph.D. Thesis, Royal Institute of Technology, 2009.
 X. Gao, H. Li, L. Han, B. Santillana, K. Hechu, L. Zhuang, Mater. Charact., 2019, vol. 151, pp. 182-90.
 S. Saleem, M. Vynnycky, H. Fredriksson, Metall. Mater. Trans. B, 2017, vol. 48, pp. 1625-35.
 H. Nassar, H. Fredriksson, Metall. Mater. Trans. A, 2010, vol. 41, pp. 2776-83.
 M. Bellet, O. Cerri, M. Bobadilla, Y. Chastel, Metall. Mater. Trans. A, 2009, vol. 40, pp 2705-15.
 E. Wielgosz, T. Kargul, J. Therm. Anal. Calorim., 2015, vol. 119, pp. 1547-53.
 S. Abraham, R. Bodnar, J. Lonnqvist, F. Shahbazian, A. Lagerstedt, M. Andersson, Metall. Mater. Trans. A, 2019, vol. 50, pp. 2259-71.
 K. Blazek, O. Lanzi, P. Gano, D Kellogg, Iron & steel Technol., 2008, vol. 5, pp. 80-85.
J.J.R. Mondragón, M.H. Trejo, M.D.J.C. Román, ISIJ Int., 2008, vol. 48, pp. 454-60
S. Griesser, Ph.D. Thesis, University of Wollongong, 2013.
K. Hechu, Ph.D. Thesis, University of Warwick, 2018.
 H.W. Kerr, J. Cisse, G.F. Bolling, Acta Metall., 1974, vol. 22, pp. 677-86.
 I. Sohn, R. Dippenaar, Metall. Mater. Trans. B, 2016, vol. 47, pp. 2083-94.
 H. Shibata, Y. Arai, M. Suzuki, T. Emi, Metall. Mater. Trans. B, 2000, vol. 31. pp. 981-91.
 N. McDonald, S. Sridhar, Metall. Mater. Trans. A, 2003, vol. 34, pp. 1931-40.
D. Phelan, M. Reid, R. Dippenaar, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 2008, vol. 477, pp. 226-32.
 C. Slater, K. Hechu, S. Sridhar, Mater. Charact., 2017, vol. 126, pp. 144-48.
 D. Phelan, M. Reid, R. Dippenaar, Metall. Mater. Trans. A, 2006, vol. 37, pp. 985-94.
 S. Griesser, C. Bernhard, R. Dippenaar, Acta Mater., 2014, vol. 81, pp. 111-20.
 S. Griesser, C. Bernhard, R. Dippenaar, ISIJ Int., 2014, vol. 54, pp. 466-73.
 S. Griesser, M. Reid, C. Bernhard, R. Dippenaar, Acta Mater., 2014, vol. 67, pp. 335-41.
S.C. Moon, R. Dippenaar, S.-Y. Kim, AISTech Conference, Cleveland, USA, 2015, pp. 3338–50.
 J. Xu, S. He, T. Wu, X. Long, Q. Wang, ISIJ Int., 2012, vol. 52, pp. 1856-61.
 J. Guo, G. Wen, D. Pu, P. Tang, Materials, 2018, vol. 11, pp. 571–83.
 S. Griesser, R. Dippenaar, ISIJ Int., 2014, vol. 54, pp. 533-35.
 Y. Maehara, K. Yasumoto, H. Tomono, T. Nagamichi, Y. Ohmori, Mater. Sci. Technol., 1990, vol. 6, pp. 793-806.
 S. Niknafs, D. Phelan, R. Dippenaar, J. Microsc., 2013, vol. 249, pp. 53-61.
D.M. Stefanescu, Science and engineering of casting solidification, Second Edition, 2015. Springer, Berlin
S. Das, B.H. Kear, C. Adam eds., Rapidly Solidified Crystalline Alloys, Metallurgical Society of AIME, Warrendale, PA, 1985.
K. Dou, J.S. Qing, L. Wang, X.F. Zhang, B. Wang, Q. Liu, H.B. Dong, Acta Metall. Sin. 2014, 2014, pp. 1505-12.
 T. Liu, M. Long, D. Chen, S. Wu, P. Tang, S. Liu, H. Duan, J. Yang, Mater. Charact., 2019, 2019, pp. 1-10.
Thermo-Calc Version 9, in Foundation of Computational Thermodynamics. 2018, Thermo-Calc Software AB: Stockholm.
 K. Hechu, C. Slater, B. Santillana, S. Sridhar, Mater. Charact., 2019, vol. 154, pp. 138-47.
D. Phelan, Ph.D. Thesis, University of Wollongong, 2002.
The work is financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC, Project No. U1960113, 51874059, and 51874060). The authors would like to thank the support by the Natural Science Foundation of Chongqing (Project No. cstc2018jcyjAX0647, cstc2018jszx-cyzdX0076) and the China Scholarship Council (CSC). We would like to acknowledge Qingqiang Ren (Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, IL) for his support and advice throughout this simulated research.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
Manuscript submitted 30 May, 2019.
About this article
Cite this article
Liu, T., Long, M., Chen, D. et al. Investigation of the Peritectic Phase Transition in a Commercial Peritectic Steel Under Different Cooling Rates Using In Situ Observation. Metall Mater Trans B 51, 338–352 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11663-019-01758-y