Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B

, Volume 50, Issue 5, pp 2377–2388 | Cite as

Improving the Modeling of Slag and Steel Bath Chemistry in an Electric Arc Furnace Process Model

  • Thomas HayEmail author
  • Alexander Reimann
  • Thomas Echterhof


An improvement to the thermochemical module of the electric arc furnace (EAF) process model developed by Meier based on the work of Logar, Dovžan, and Škrjanc is presented. Different models for the calculation of activities in melt and slag are implemented, and separate reaction zones are defined for the interaction of slag and melt, the injection of oxygen, and the injection of carbon. For each zone, equilibrium compositions and reaction rates are calculated. Furthermore, diffusion of species is considered as a rate-limiting factor in reactions between slag and melt, and diffusion rates are calculated from the bulk melt to the reaction zone where reactions with the slag take place. Oxygen and sulfur dissolved in the melt and CaS in the slag are added as new species not previously considered in the EAF model. The treatment of carbon is revised to reduce model complexity and improve accuracy. The improved model is validated using extensive data from an industrial EAF, and results are compared to measured data as well as results obtained with the unmodified model. The different models for the determination of thermodynamic activities and their impacts on the duration of the simulation as well as its results are evaluated.



Electric arc furnace


Regular solution model


Unified interaction parameter formalism


Melt zone


Slag zone


Solid scrap zone


Solid slag (charged slag formers) zone


Furnace walls


Furnace roof


Gas zone


Electric arc(s)




Palm kernel shells


Wagner interaction parameter formalism

Greek Letters


Interaction parameter RSM


Interaction parameter UIP/WIPF (molar)


Stoichiometric coefficient


Activity coefficient (molar)


Stoichiometric oxygen mass per mass of reacting element

Latin Letters




Interaction parameter UIP/WIPF (mass pct)


Activity coefficient (mass pct)


Free enthalpy of reaction


Height of furnace


Height of scrap inside furnace (at the wall)


Conversion factor RSM


Equilibrium constant


Equilibrium correction factor


Ratio of diffusion to reaction rates


Reaction parameter


Fraction of lanced carbon oxidized by carrier gas (air)


Fraction of injected carbon not reacting (lost with off-gas)

\( k_{{\text{C-inj-CO}}_{2}}\)

Fraction of injected carbon reacting further to CO2

\( k_{{{\text{FeO-O}}_{2} }} \)

Reaction parameter for oxidation of scrap with O2 from atmosphere

\( k_{{{\text{O-inj-diss}}}} \)

Fraction of injected oxygen dissolving in melt



\( \dot{m}_{{{\text{C-res-inj}}}} \)

Mass flow Carbon from reservoir becoming available for slag reactions

\( \dot{m}_{{{\text{C-inj-temp}}}} \)

Mass injected Carbon from input data

\( \dot{m}_{{{\text{C-inj}}}} \)

Mass flow of carbon for slag reactions at carbon injection site

\( \dot{m}_{i}^{j} \)

Mass flow of element i in reaction zone j from chemical reaction

\( \dot{m}_{\Delta } \)

Mass flow to maintain mass of melt in interface zone

\( \dot{m}_{\text{FeO}}^{\text{atm}} \)

Mass flow of FeO from oxidation of scrap with O2 from atmosphere


CO partial pressure


Gas constant




Mass fraction (pct)


Molar fraction


Cation fraction

Subscripts and Superscripts


Slag zone


Mass flows resulting from diffusion


Bulk melt zone


Interface zone


sum of all mass flows in interface zone


Oxide in slag zone


At equilibrium


Carbon injection zone


Oxygen injection zone


Charged slag formers (chalk, dolomite)



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Copyright information

© The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society and ASM International 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Thomas Hay
    • 1
    Email author
  • Alexander Reimann
    • 1
  • Thomas Echterhof
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Industrial Furnaces and Heat EngineeringRheinisch-Westfälische Technische Hochschule (RWTH) Aachen UniversityAachenGermany

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