A Physical Model to Study the Effects of Nozzle Design on Dense Two-Phase Flows in a Slab Mold Casting Ultra-Low Carbon Steels

Abstract

Momentum transfer of argon–steel flows in a slab mold were studied through an air–water physical model and particle image velocimetry measurements under the effects of nozzle design (nozzles with square ports S, square ports with bottom design U and circular ports C) and gas flow rate. The ratio of drag momentum of the gas phase over the liquid phase defines the conditions for coupled (existence of momentum transfer between the phases) and channeled flows (defined as those conditions where there is not further momentum transfer between both phases). When the ratio of superficial velocities of the gas phase over the liquid phase in the nozzle bore is less than 0.14, the flow pattern in the mold is dependent on the nozzle design and flow rate of gas (2 to 10 L/minute). Above this magnitude, the flow pattern becomes uncoupled and independent from the nozzle design and from the flow rate of gas. The ratios of drag velocities of the gas phase on the liquid phase and their superficial velocities in the nozzle bore are strongly dependent on the volume fraction of the gas phase. Nozzle U delivers the smallest sizes of bubbles and the smaller amount of bubble swarms per unit time impacting on the narrow face of the mold. It is, therefore, the most recommendable to cast ultra-low carbon steels. Practical implications derived from these results are written down in the text.

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Correspondence to María M. Salazar-Campoy.

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Manuscript submitted August 17, 2016.

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Salazar-Campoy, M.M., Morales, R.D., Nájera-Bastida, A. et al. A Physical Model to Study the Effects of Nozzle Design on Dense Two-Phase Flows in a Slab Mold Casting Ultra-Low Carbon Steels. Metall Mater Trans B 48, 1376–1389 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11663-017-0918-8

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Keywords

  • Mold
  • Particle Image Velocimetry
  • High Flow Rate
  • Bubble Size
  • Casting Speed