Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A

, Volume 50, Issue 5, pp 2126–2138 | Cite as

Achieving Gradient Martensite Structure and Enhanced Mechanical Properties in a Metastable β Titanium Alloy

  • Xinkai Ma
  • Fuguo LiEmail author
  • Zhankun Sun
  • Junhua Hou
  • Xiaotian Fang
  • Yuntian ZhuEmail author
  • Carl C. Koch


Gradient materials have been reported to have superior strength–ductility combinations. In this study, gradient α″ martensite were introduced along the radial direction of cylindrical Ti-10V-2Al-3Fe (Ti-1023) samples by torsional straining, which simultaneously improved strength and ductility. The torsional strain gradient produced martensite gradient with increasing density and decreasing thickness from center to surface. α″ martensite had parallel and V-shaped morphology, which not only divided coarse β grains into finer β blocks but also blocked dislocation slip. In addition, dislocation slip in the α″ martensite and β blocks led to grain refinement. The formation of geometrically necessary dislocation (GNDs) and the increasing shear stress required for martensitic transformation contributed to high strain hardening. An optimal gradient distribution exists in torsion-processed samples for the optimal mechanical properties.



This work was supported by the China Scholarship Council (No. 201706290055, awarded to Xinkai Ma for two-year abroad study at the North Carolina State University); the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51275414, 51605387); the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities with Grant No. 3102015BJ (II) ZS007; the Research Fund of the State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing (NWPU), China (Grant No.130-QP-2015); and the Seed Foundation of Innovation and Creation for Graduate Students in Northwestern Polytechnical University (No. Z2018076).


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Copyright information

© The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society and ASM International 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, School of Materials Science and EngineeringNorthwestern Polytechnical UniversityXi’anP.R. China
  2. 2.Department of Materials Science and EngineeringNorth Carolina State UniversityRaleighUSA

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