Freezing Range, Melt Quality, and Hot Tearing in Al-Si Alloys

Article

Abstract

In this study, three different aluminum-silicon alloys (A356, A413, and A380) that have different solidification morphology and solidification ranges were examined with an aim to evaluate the hot tearing susceptibility. T-shape mold and Constrained Rod Casting (CRC) mold were used for the characterization. Reduced Pressure Test (RPT) was used to quantify the casting quality by measuring bifilm index. It was found that bifilm index and solidification range have an important role on the hot tearing formation. As it is known, bifilms can cause porosity and in this case, it was shown that porosity formed by bifilms decreased hot tearing tendency. As the freezing range of alloy increases, bifilms find the time to unravel that reduces hot tearing. However, for eutectic alloy (A413), due to zero freezing range, regardless of bifilm content, hot tearing was never observed. A380.1 alloy had the highest tendency for hot tearing due to having the highest freezing range among the alloys investigated in this work.

Notes

Acknowledgments

Special thanks to Murat Akcin from MagmaSoft, Istanbul, Turkey for the simulations. This work has been supported by the Scientific Research Projects Coordination Unit of Selcuk University (Project Number: 13101026). Muhammet Uludağ was a Ph.D. student at Selcuk University, during the publication process, and he started working at Bursa Technical University. Author would like to thank to TUBITAK (Turkey) for its support.

References

  1. 1.
    Campbell, J., Complete Casting Handbook: Metal Casting Processes, Metallurgy, Techniques and Design. Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford, 2015.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Eskin, D. and Katgerman, L., Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, 2007. 38: pp. 1511-1519.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Cáceres, C.H. and Selling, B.I., Materials Science and Engineering: A, 1996. 220 (1–2): pp. 109-116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Clyne, T., Wolf, M., and Kurz, W., Metallurgical transactions B, 1982. 13: pp. 259-266.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    M’Hamdi, M., Mo, A., and Fjær, H.G., Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, 2006. 37: pp. 3069-3083.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Rappaz, M., Drezet, J.M., and Gremaud, M., Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A: Physical Metallurgy and Materials Science, 1999. 30: pp. 449-455.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Spittle, J. and Cushway, A., Metals Technology, 1983. 10 (1): pp. 6-13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    M’Hamdi, M., Mo, A., and Martin, C.L., Metallurgical and materials transactions a, 2002. 33: pp. 2081-2093.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Campbell, J., Castings: The New Metallurgy of Cast Metals. Butterworth Heinemann, Oxford, 2003.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    D.G. Eskin, Suyitno, and L. Katgerman: Prog. Mater. Sci., 2004, vol. 49(5), pp. 629–711.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Verö, J., The Metal Industry, 1936. 48: pp. 431-94.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Pumphrey, W.I. and Jennings, P.H., J. Inst. Metals, 75, 235–56, 1948.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Pekguleryuz, M.O., Lin, S., Ozbakir, E., Temur, D., and Aliravci, C., International Journal of Cast Metals Research, 2010. 23 (5): pp. 310-320.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Pokorny, M., Monroe, C., Beckermann, C., Bichler, L., and Ravindran, C., Int. J. Metalcast. 2008, vol. 2(4), 41-53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Bichler, L., Ravindran, C., and Sediako, D., Canadian Journal of Physics, 2010. 88 (10): pp. 715-721.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Bichler, L. and Ravindran, C., Mater. Des., 2010, vol. 31(Supplement 1), pp. 17–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Esfahani, M.R.N. and Niroumand, B., Materials Characterization, 2010. 61 (3): pp. 318-324.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    D’Elia, F., Ravindran, C., and Sediako, D., Canadian Metallurgical Quarterly, 2014. 53 (2): pp. 151-159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Cao, G. and Kou, S., Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, 2006. 37: pp. 3647-3663.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Lin, S., Aliravci, C., and Pekguleryuz, M.O., Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, 2007. 38: pp. 1056-1068.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Pekguleryuz, M.O. and Vermette, P., International Journal of Cast Metals Research, 2009. 22 (5): pp. 357-366.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kamguo Kamga, H., Larouche, D., Bournane, M., and Rahem, A., Materials Science and Engineering: A, 2010. 527 (27–28): pp. 7413-7423.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Katgerman, L., JOM, 1982. 34 (2): pp. 46-49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Li, S., Sadayappan, K., and Apelian, D., International Journal of Cast Metals Research, 2011. 24 (2): pp. 88-95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Li, S., Apelian, D., and Sadayappan, K., International Journal of Metalcasting, 2012. 6 (3): pp. 51-58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Li, S., Sadayappan, K., and Apelian, D., Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B, 2013. 44: pp. 614-623.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Dahle, A.K., Lee, Y.C., Nave, M.D., Schaffer, P.L., and StJohn, D.H., Journal of light metals, 2001. 1 (1): pp. 61-72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Dickhaus, C., Ohm, L., and Engler, S., AFS Trans., 1994, vol. 101, 677–84.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Lahaie, D. and Bouchard, M., Metall Mater Trans B, 2001. 32B, 697–705.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    J. Langlais and J.E. Gruzleski, in Aluminium Alloys: Their Physical and Mechanical Properties, Pts 1-3, E.A. Starke, T.H. Sanders, and W.A. Cassada, eds., Trans Tech Publications Ltd, Stafa-Zurich, 2000, pp. 167–72.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    I. Novikov: Goryachelomkost’tsvetnyh metallov i splavov, Nauka, Novosibirsk, 1966, p. 299.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Suyitno Kool, W. and Katgerman, L., Mat Sci Forum, 2002. 179: pp. 396-402.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Williams, J. and Singer, A., J. Inst. Met., 1968. 96, 5–12.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Magnin, B., Maenner, L., Katgerman, L., and Engler, S., Mater. Sci. Forum, 1996, vols. 217–222, pp. 1209–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Zhao, L., Baoyin Wang, N., Sahajwalla, V., and Pehlke, R., Int. J. Cast Met. Res., 2000, vol. 13(3), 167–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    M. Braccini, C. Martin, M. Suery, and Y. Bréchet: MCWASP IX. Shaker Verlag, Aachen, 2000.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Prokhorov, N.N., Russ. Cast. Prod., 1962, vol. 2, pp. 172–77.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Clyne, T. and Davies, G., Br. Foundrym., 1975, vol. 68, 238–44.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Feurer, U., Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands, 1977: pp. 131-45.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Dispinar, D., Akhtar, S., Nordmark, A., Di Sabatino, M., and Arnberg, L., Materials Science and Engineering: A, 2010. 527 (16–17): pp. 3719-3725.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Bozchaloei, G.E., Varahram, N., Davami, P., and Kim, S.K., Materials Science and Engineering: A, 2012. 548: pp. 99-105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Cao, X., Wallace, W., Immarigeon, J.-P., and Poon, C., Materials and Manufacturing Processes, 2003. 18 (1): pp. 23-49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Dey, A.K., Poddar, P., Singh, K.K., and Sahoo, K.L., Materials Science and Engineering: A, 2006. 435–436 (0): pp. 521-529.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Tiryakioglu, M., Campbell, J., and Alexopoulos, N.D., Metallurgical and Materials Transactions a-Physical Metallurgy and Materials Science, 2009. 40A (4): pp. 1000-1007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Dispinar, D. and Campbell, J., International Journal of Cast Metals Research, 2004. 17 (5): pp. 280-286.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Dispinar, D. and Campbell, J., International Journal of Cast Metals Research, 2004. 17 (5): pp. 287-294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Dispinar, D. and Campbell, J., International Journal of Cast Metals Research, 2006. 19 (1): pp. 5-17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Dispinar, D. and Campbell, J., Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 2007. 182 (1–3): pp. 405-410.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Dispinar, D. and Campbell, J., Materials Science and Engineering: A, 2011. 528 (10–11): pp. 3860-3865.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    D. Dispinar, A. Nordmark, J. Voje, and L. Arnberg: in 138th TMS Annual Meeting, Shape Casting: 3rd International Symposium, San Francisco, California, USA, February 2009.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    D. Dispinar and J. Campbell: in Shape Casting: 5th International Symposium 2014, Springer, Cham.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    H. Bagherpour-Torghabeh, R. Raiszadeh, and H. Doostmohammadi: Metall. Mater. Trans. B, 2017. 48 (6) pp. 3174–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Bartar Esfahani, H., Raiszadeh, R., and Doostmohammadi, H., International Journal of Cast Metals Research, 2017. 30 (2): pp. 87-95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Davami, P., Kim, S., and Tiryakioğlu, M., Materials Science and Engineering: A, 2013. 579: pp. 64-70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Farhoodi, B., Raiszadeh, R., and Ghanaatian, M.-H., Journal of Materials Science & Technology, 2014. 30 (2): pp. 154-162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Li, W., Zhou, J., Ma, B., Wang, J., Wu, J., and Yang, Y., Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B, 2017. 48 (5): pp. 2334-2342.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    B. Mirzaei, S. Akhtar, and R.E. Aune: in IEEE 2013 International Conference on Aerospace Science & Engineering (ICASE), 2013.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Mostafaei, M., Ghobadi, M., Uludağ, M., and Tiryakioğlu, M., Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B, 2016. 47 (6): pp. 3469-3475.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Timelli, G. and Caliari, D.: Mater. Sci. Forum. 2017, vols. 773–774, pp. 462–68.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Tiryakioğlu, M., Davami, P., Kim, S.-K., Yoon, Y.O., Yeom, G.-Y., and Kim, N.-S., Materials Science and Engineering: A, 2014. 605: pp. 203-209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Uludağ, M., Çetin, R., Dispinar, D., and Tiryakioğlu, M., Metals, 2017. 7 (5): pp. 157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Campbell, J., Castings practice–the 10 rules for casting. Elsevier, Oxford, UK. Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford, 2004.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society and ASM International 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Muhammet Uludağ
    • 1
  • Remzi Çetin
    • 2
  • Derya Dispinar
    • 3
  1. 1.Metallurgical and Materials Engineering DepartmentBursa Technical UniversityBursaTurkey
  2. 2.Materials Engineering DepartmentKTO Karatay UniversityKonyaTurkey
  3. 3.Metallurgical and Materials Engineering DepartmentIstanbul UniversityIstanbulTurkey

Personalised recommendations