Clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients presenting with hip fractures at a tertiary care hospital in Pakistan



Osteoporosis remains under-recognized and sub-optimally managed in Pakistan, with a lack of awareness that minimal impact hip fracture is a manifestation of low bone mineral density (BMD).


Hip fracture is often the first clinical presentation of osteoporosis and an opportunity to intervene and reduce future fracture risk. Our aim was to understand the current practices in Pakistan related to bone health in patients presenting with a hip fracture.


This is a retrospective study at a tertiary care center in Pakistan of patients admitted with a hip fracture. Data collected includes previous fracture history, known preceding diagnosis of low BMD medication details, comorbidities, and DXA results.


Two hundred ten patients were studied. The mean age of patients was 73.1 years, with 112 (53.3%) women. Most (195 (92.9%)) had presented with a low-impact hip fracture, with 17 (8.1%) reporting previous history of fracture. None had been treated with osteoporosis medications prior to fracture. Nineteen (9%) were on calcium and vitamin D supplements prior to fracture; of the minority who were screened, all were vitamin D deficient and subsequently discharged on vitamin D supplements. No one was prescribed medications to reduce fracture risk at discharge.


This study reveals that patients admitted with minimal impact hip fractures in Pakistan are rarely evaluated for low BMD and not started on osteoporosis medications even after presenting with a typical osteoporosis-related fracture. This underscores the need for health provider education about osteoporosis as a major cause for hip fractures and the need to intervene for future fracture risk reduction.

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Conception (AA, MTI, SN), development (AA, MTI, HA, SN), planning (AA, MTI, HA, MBH, SAS, SN), execution (AA, MTI, HA, MBH, SAS, SN), analysis/interpretation (AA, MTI, HA, AHK, LJ, SN), and writing (AA, MTI, MBH, AHK, LJ, SN)

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Correspondence to Sarah Nadeem.

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This study was given an exemption by the Ethics Review Committee, the Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi. For this type of study, formal consent is not required.

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For this type of study, formal consent is not required.

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Author SN has received research grants from the WHO and speaker honorarium from Abbott and Lilly. No other author has any conflict of interest.

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Arshad, A., Ibrahim, M.T., Arshad, H. et al. Clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients presenting with hip fractures at a tertiary care hospital in Pakistan. Arch Osteoporos 16, 25 (2021).

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  • Osteoporosis
  • Hip fracture
  • DXA
  • Bone mineral density (BMD)
  • Pakistan
  • Developing country