Postural instability and position of the center of pressure into the base of support in postmenopausal osteoporotic and nonosteoporotic women with and without hyperkyphosis



In postmenopausal women, thoracic hyperkyphosis affects postural instability in the sagittal plane, whereas osteoporosis affects it in the frontal plane. Decrease of hip muscle strength can be changed the center of pressure distance to the center of base of support. These results may be important to design the therapeutic exercise for decreasing the postural instability.


In this study, we investigated the effect of bone mineral density (BMD) and thoracic kyphosis on the center of pressure (CoP) sway and its location related to the base of support (BoS).


Ten young and 39 postmenopausal women voluntarily participated in this study. Postmenopausal women were divided into four groups according to the thoracic kyphosis angle (normal kyphotic < 50° ≤ hyperkyphotic) and T-score values. The isometric strength of the trunk and lower limb muscles were measured. The CoP postural sway was measured in a comfortable double stance position, and the location of the CoP was then determined related to the BoS.


In both hyperkyphotic groups (osteoporotic and normal BMD), the strength of back extension and hip adduction showed a significant decrease compared to the normal kyphotic groups. In the osteoporotic groups (hyper- and normal kyphotic), hip abduction and ankle plantar flexion were significantly weaker than those in the nonosteoporotic groups. In both hyperkyphotic groups, velocity of the CoP displacement in the anterior-posterior (AP) direction was significantly higher than that in the young group, while, in both of the osteoporotic groups, velocity of the CoP displacement in the medio-lateral (ML) direction was significantly higher than that in the young group. In postmenopausal women, hip extensor strength negatively and significantly correlated with the CoP distance to the center of the BoS.


It appears that thoracic hyperkyphosis affects postural instability in the AP direction and that a decrease of BMD affects postural instability in the ML direction.

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This project was supported by a grant from Medical Sciences of Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran. The authors have not received funding for this study. We would like to express my special thanks of gratitude to Dr. Saber Dini (Melbourne School of Population and Global Health) to help for developing base of support setup.

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Correspondence to Giti Torkaman.

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The Medical Ethics Committee of Tarbiat Modares University approved the study.

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Mohebi, S., Torkaman, G., Bahrami, F. et al. Postural instability and position of the center of pressure into the base of support in postmenopausal osteoporotic and nonosteoporotic women with and without hyperkyphosis. Arch Osteoporos 14, 58 (2019).

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  • Thoracic hyperkyphosis
  • Osteoporosis
  • Postmenopausal women
  • Base of support
  • Center of pressure