Detection of tyrosine, trace metals and nutrients in cow dung: the environmental significance in soil and water environments
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This study examined the dissolved organic matter (DOM) components of cow dung using a combination of fluorescence (excitation–emission matrix, EEM) spectroscopy and parallel factor (PARAFAC) modelling along with eleven trace metals using ICP-MS and nutrients (NH4+ and NO3−) using an AA3 auto analyser. EEM–PARAFAC analysis demonstrated that cow dung predominantly contained only one fluorescent DOM component with two fluorescence peaks (Ex/Em = 275/311 nm and Ex/Em = 220/311 nm), which could be denoted as tyrosine by comparison with its standard. Occurrence of tyrosine can be further confirmed by the FTIR spectra. Trace metals analysis revealed that Na, K and Mg were significantly higher than Ca, Fe, Mn, Zn Sr, Cu, Ni and Co. The NH4+ concentrations were substantially higher than NO3−. These results thus indicate that the dissolved components of the cow dung could be useful for better understanding its future uses in various important purposes.
KeywordsCow dung Excitation–emission matrix (EEM) spectroscopy Parallel factor (PARAFAC) modelling Tyrosine Trace metals
This study was financially supported by the Key Construction Program of the National 985 Project, Tianjin University, China and the National Key R and D Program of China (2016YFA0601000).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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