Spatial correlation between groundwater seepage faces and fault zone in high bedrock channel: method and application

Abstract

The groundwater may recharge the surface water bodies through seepage faces and springs. The spatial correlation between the fault zones and the groundwater seepage faces results in deep understanding of the hydrogeologic regime, especially where there is no monitoring boreholes. Locating these recharging zones by conventional methods is a challenging task; particularly in areas where (1) there is no hydrogeologic monitoring boreholes or reliable data, (2) private pumps withdraw the stream, and (3) intense canopy limits the use of drones and satellite images. This paper aims to study the relationship between the fault zones and occurrence of the groundwater seepage faces by using the high resolution handheld thermal imaging cameras as a tool to locate the seepage faces along a small river in the Damavand County, north of Iran. The correlation between the structural geology features and occurrence of the groundwater seepage faces revealed that the stream in the study area is being recharged by the groundwater at extensive fault zones. Additionally, this study suggests that the handheld thermal imaging cameras are a useful robust tools to evaluate the surface-groundwater interaction. However, it is essential to use the field structural geologic and hydrogeologic observations to interpret the thermal images.

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Correspondence to Yaser Nikpeyman.

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Nikpeyman, Y., Ehteshami-Moinabadi, M. Spatial correlation between groundwater seepage faces and fault zone in high bedrock channel: method and application. J. Mt. Sci. 18, 558–566 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11629-020-6417-4

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Keywords

  • Damavand aquifer
  • Fault zone
  • Iran
  • River
  • Seepage face
  • Thermal imaging camera