Soil anti-scourability enhanced by herbaceous species roots in a reservoir water level fluctuation zone

Abstract

Revegetation is one of the successful approaches to soil consolidation and streambank protection in reservoir water level fluctuation zones (WLFZs). However, little research has been conducted to explore the impact of herbaceous species roots on soil anti-scourability during different growth stages and under different degrees of inundation in this zone. This study sampled two typical grasslands (Hemarthria compressa grassland and Xanthium sibiricum grassland) at two elevations (172 and 165 m a.s.l.) in the water level fluctuation zone (WLFZ) in the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) of China to quantify the changes in soil and root properties and their effects on soil anti-scourability. A simulated scouring experiment was conducted to test the soil anti-scourability in April and August of 2018. The results showed that the discrepancy in inundation duration and predominant herbaceous species was associated with a difference in root biomass between the two grasslands. The root weight density (RWD) values in the topsoil (0-10 cm) ranged from 7.31 to 13 mg cm−3 for the Hemarthria compressa grassland, while smaller values ranging from 0.48 to 8.61 mg cm−3 were observed for the Xanthium sibiricum grassland. In addition, the root biomass of the two herbs was significantly greater at 172 m a.s.l. than that at 165 m a.s.l. in the early recovery growth period (April). Both herbs can effectively improve the soil properties; the organic matter contents of the grasslands were 128.06% to 191.99% higher than that in the bare land (CK), while the increase in the water-stable aggregate ranged from 8.21% to 18.56%. Similarly, the topsoil anti-scourability indices in both the herbaceous grasslands were larger than those in the CK. The correlation coefficients between the root length density (RLD), root surface area density (RSAD) and root volume density (RVD) of fine roots and the soil anti-scourability index were 0.501, 0.776 and 0.936, respectively. Moreover, the change in the soil anti-scourability index was more sensitive to alternations in the RLD with diameters less than 0.5 mm. Overall, the present study showed that the perennial herbaceous (H. compressa) has great potential as a countermeasure to reduce or mitigate the impact of erosion in the WLFZ of the Three Gorges Reservoir.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  1. Aminem ELI, Chang SL, Zhang YT, et al. (2014) Altitudinal distribution rule of Picea schrenkiana forest’s soil organic carbon and its influencing factors. Acta Ecol Sin 34(7): 1626–1634. https://doi.org/10.5846/stxb201305311261

    Google Scholar 

  2. Baniya MB, Asaeda T, Fujino T, et al. (2020) Mechanism of riparian vegetation growth and sediment transport interaction in floodplain: A dynamic riparian vegetation Model (DRIPVEM) approach. Water 12(77): 1–13. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12010077

    Google Scholar 

  3. Bao YH, Gao P, He XB. (2015) The water-level fluctuation zone of Three Gorges Reservoir-A unique geomorphological unit. Earth-Sci Rev 150: 14–24. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.earscirev.2015.07.005

    Google Scholar 

  4. Bao YH, He XB, Wen AB, et al. (2018) Dynamic changes of soil erosion in a typical disturbance zone of China’s Three Gorges Reservoir. Catena 169: 128–139. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.catena.2018.05.032

    Google Scholar 

  5. Bast A, Wilcke W, Graf F, et al. (2014) The use of mycorrhiza for eco - engineering measures in steep alpine environments: effects on soil aggregate formation and fine root development. Earth Surf Proc Land 39(13): 1753–1763. https://doi.org/10.1002/esp.3557

    Google Scholar 

  6. Bennett HH (1939) Soil Conservation. McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York, USA.

    Google Scholar 

  7. Burri K, Graf F, Albert Böll. 2009. Revegetation measures improve soil aggregate stability: a case study of a landslide area in Central Switzerland. For Snow Landsc Res 82(1): 45–60.

    Google Scholar 

  8. Cannon WA (1949) A tentative classification of root systems. Ecology 30: 452–458. https://doi.org/10.2307/1932458

    Google Scholar 

  9. Cheng L, Zhan HG, Guo ZL (2019) Root system responses of three herbs to soil anti-erodibility. Pratac Sci 36(2): 284–294. (In Chinese)

    Google Scholar 

  10. Cislaghi A, Bordoni M, Meisina C, et al. (2017) Soil reinforcement provided by the root system of grapevines: Quantification and spatial variability. Ecol Eng 109: 169–185. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoleng.2017.04.034

    Google Scholar 

  11. Cislaghi A, Giupponi L, Tamburini A, et al. (2019) The effects of mountain grazing abandonment on plant community, forage value and soil properties: observations and field measurements in an alpine area. Catena 181: 104086. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.catena.2019.104086

    Google Scholar 

  12. Cochrane HR, Aylmore LAG (1994) The effects of plant roots on soil structure. In: Proceedings of 3rd Triennial Conference ‘Soils 94’. pp. 207–212.

  13. Cybersky J (1973) Erosion of banks of storage reservoirs in Poland. Hydrol Sci Bull 18(3): 317–320. https://doi.org/10.1080/02626667309494042

    Google Scholar 

  14. De Baets S, Denbigh TDG, Smyth KM, et al. (2020) Micro-scale interactions between Arabidopsis root hairs and soil particles influence soil erosion. Commun Biol 3: 164. https://doi.org/10.1038/s42003-020-0886-4

    Google Scholar 

  15. De Baets S, Poesen J, Gyssels G, et al. (2006). Effects of grass roots on the erodibility of topsoils during concentrated flow. Geomorphology 76: 54–67. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geomorph.2005.10.002

    Google Scholar 

  16. De Baets S, Poesen J, Knapen A, et al. (2007a) Impact of root architecture on the erosion-reducing potential of roots during concentrated flow. Earth Surf Process Landf 32: 1323–1345. https://doi.org/10.1002/esp.1470

    Google Scholar 

  17. De Baets S, Poesen J, Knapen A, et al. (2007b) Root characteristics of representative Mediterranean plant species and their erosion-reducing potential during concentrated runoff. Plant Soil 294: 169–183. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11104-007-9244-2

    Google Scholar 

  18. De Baets S, Torri D, Poesen J, et al. (2008) Modeling increased soil cohesion due to roots with EUROSEM. Earth Surf Process Landf 33: 1948–1963. https://doi.org/10.1002/esp.1647

    Google Scholar 

  19. De Baets S, Poesen J (2010) Empirical models for predicting the erosion-reducing effects of plant roots during concentrated flow erosion. Geomorphology 118: 425–432. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geomorph.2010.02.011

    Google Scholar 

  20. Fan DY, Xiong GM, Zhang AY, et al. (2015) Effect of water-level regulation on species selection for ecological restoration practice in the water-level fluctuation zone of Three Gorges Reservoir. Chinese J Plant Ecol 39(4): 416–432. (In Chinese)

    Google Scholar 

  21. Fattet M, Fu Y, Ghestem M, et al. (2011) Effects of vegetation type on soil resistance to erosion: relationship between aggregate stability and shear strength. Catena 87: 60–69. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.catena.2011.05.006

    Google Scholar 

  22. Feng TJ, Wei W, Chen LD, et al. (2018) Assessment of the impact of different vegetation patterns on soil erosion processes on semiarid loess slopes. Earth Surf Process Landf 43: 1860–1870. https://doi.org/10.1002/esp.4361

    Google Scholar 

  23. Fitter AH (1987) An architectural approach to the comparative ecology of plant root systems. New Phytol 106(S1): 61–77. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8137.1987.tb04683.x

    Google Scholar 

  24. Gasser E, Perona P, Dorren L, et al. (2020) A new framework to model hydraulic bank erosion considering the effects of roots. Water 12: 893. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12030893

    Google Scholar 

  25. Ghidey F, Alberts EE (1997) Plant root effects on soil erodibility, splash detachment, soil strength, and aggregate stability. Am Soc Agric Eng 40: 129–135. https://doi.org/10.13031/2013.21257

    Google Scholar 

  26. Giadrossich F, Cohen D, Schwarz M, et al. (2019) Large roots dominate the contribution of trees to slope stability. Earth Surf Process Landf 44: 1602–1609. https://doi.org/10.1002/esp.4597

    Google Scholar 

  27. Gregory PJ. (2006) Plant roots: growth, activity and interaction with soils. Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, UK. p. 318.

    Google Scholar 

  28. Guo MM, Wang WL, Li JM, et al. (2020) Runoff characteristics and soil erosion dynamic processes on four typical engineered landforms of coalfields: An in-situ simulated rainfall experimental study. Geomorphology 349: 106896. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geomorph.2019.106896

    Google Scholar 

  29. Gyssels G, Poesen J, Bochet E, et al. (2005) Impact of plant roots on the resistance of soils to erosion by water: a review. Prog Phys Geogr 29(2): 189–217. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-52665-w

    Google Scholar 

  30. Hudek C, Stanchi S, D’Amico Michele, et al. (2017) Quantifying the contribution of the root system of alpine vegetation in the soil aggregate stability of moraine. Int Soil Water Conserv Res 5(1): 36–42. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.iswcr.2017.02.001

    Google Scholar 

  31. Hudson NW (1971) Soil conservation. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York, USA.

    Google Scholar 

  32. Hughes AO (2016) Riparian management and stream bank erosion in New Zealand. N Z J Geol Geophys 50(2): 277–290. https://doi.org/10.1080/00288330.2015.1116449

    Google Scholar 

  33. Kaczmarek H, Mazaeva OA, Kozyreva EA, et al. (2016) Impact of large water level fluctuations on geomorphological processes and their interactions in the shore zone of a dam reservoir. J Gt Lakes Res 42(5): 926–941. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jglr.2016.07.024

    Google Scholar 

  34. Knapen A, Poesen J, Govers G, et al. (2007) Resistance of soils to concentrated flow erosion: A review. Earth-Sci Rev 80: 75–109. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.earscirev.2006.08.001

    Google Scholar 

  35. Kursakova VS (2006) The effect of perennial herbs on the physical properties of saline soils. Eur J Soil Sci 39: 748–752. https://doi.org/10.1134/s1064229306070088

    Google Scholar 

  36. Lane SN, Tayefi V, Reid SC, et al. (2007) Interactions between sediment delivery, channel change, climate change and flood risk in a temperate upland environment. Earth Surf Process Landf 32(3): 429–446. https://doi.org/10.1002/esp.1404

    Google Scholar 

  37. Li JL, Bao YH, Wei J, et al. (2019) Fractal characterization of sediment particle size distribution in the water-level fluctuation zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir, China. J Mt Sci 16: 2028–2038. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11629-019-5456-1

    Google Scholar 

  38. Li Q, Liu GB, Zhang Z, et al. (2017) Relative contribution of root physical enlacing and biochemistrical exudates to soil erosion resistance in the Loess soil. Catena 153: 61–65. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.catena.2017.01.037

    Google Scholar 

  39. Li Y, Zhu XM, Tian JY, et al. (1990) A preliminary study on mechanism of soil anti-scourability on the Loess Plateau. Chin Sci Bull 35(18): 1565–1569.

    Google Scholar 

  40. Li Y, Zhu XM, Tian JY (1991) Effectiveness of plant roots to increase the anti-scourability of soil on the Loess Plateau. Chin Sci Bull 36 (24): 2077–2081.

    Google Scholar 

  41. Li Y, Xu XQ, Zhu XM, et al. (1992) Effectiveness of plant roots on increasing the soil permeability on the Loess Plateau. Chin Sci Bull 37 (20): 1735–1738.

    Google Scholar 

  42. Li Y, Yu HG, Zhou N, et al. (2015) Linking fine root and understory vegetation to channel erosion in forested hillslopes of southwestern China. Plant Soil 389(1–2): 323–334. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11104-014-2362-8

    Google Scholar 

  43. Liu Y, Wang G, Yu K, et al. (2018) A new method to optimize root order classification based on the diameter interval of fine root. Sci Rep 8(1): 2960. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-21248-6

    Google Scholar 

  44. Loch RJ (2000) Effects of vegetation cover on runoff and erosion under simulated rain and overland flow on a rehabilitated site on the Meandu Mine, Tarong, Queensland. Aust J Soil Res 38(38): 299–312. https://doi.org/10.1071/sr99030

    Google Scholar 

  45. Lu SG, Malik Z, Chen DP, et al. (2014) Porosity and pore size distribution of Ultisols and correlations to soil iron oxides. Catena 123:79–87. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.catena.2014.07.010

    Google Scholar 

  46. Lucas M, Schlüter S, Vogel H, et al. (2019) Roots compact the surrounding soil depending on the structures they encounter. Sci Rep-UK 9: 16236. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-52665-w

    Google Scholar 

  47. Malamy JE (2005) Intrinsic and environmental response pathways that regulate root system architecture. Plant Cell Environ 28: 67–77. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3040.2005.01306.x

    Google Scholar 

  48. Martin JK, Foster RC (1985) A model system for studying the biochemistry and biology of the root-soil interface. Soil Biol Biochem 17(3): 261–269. https://doi.org/10.1016/0038-0717(85)90058-6

    Google Scholar 

  49. McIvor IR, Douglas GB, Hurst SE, et al. (2008) Structural root growth of young Veronese poplars on erodible slopes in the southern North Island, New Zealand. Agrofor Syst 72: 75–86. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10457-007-9090-5

    Google Scholar 

  50. Mickovski SB, Hallett PD, Bransby MF, et al. (2009) Mechanical Reinforcement of Soil by Willow Roots: Impacts of Root Properties and Root Failure Mechanism. Soil Sci Soc Am J 73(4): 1276–1285. https://doi.org/10.2136/sssaj2008.0172

    Google Scholar 

  51. Moriuchi KS, Winn AA (2005) Relationships among growth, development and plastic response to environment quality in a perennial plant. New Phytol 166: 149–158. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8137.2005.01346.x

    Google Scholar 

  52. Morgan RPC (2005) Soil Erosion and Conservation (3rd edition). Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, UK.

    Google Scholar 

  53. Munné-Bosch S (2014) Perennial roots to immortality. Plant Physiol 166(2): 720–725. https://doi.org/10.1104/pp.114.236000

    Google Scholar 

  54. Naiman RJ, Decamps H. (1997) The ecology of interfaces: riparian zones. Annu Rev Ecol Syst 28: 621–658. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.ecolsys.28.1.621

    Google Scholar 

  55. Nilsson C, Jansson R, Zinko U (1997) Long-term responses of river-margin vegetation to water level regulation. Science 276: 798–800. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.276.5313.798

    Google Scholar 

  56. Niu XL, Nan ZB (2017) Roots of Cleistogenes Songorica improved soil aggregate cohesion and enhance soil water erosion resistance in rainfall simulation experiments. Water Air Soil Pollut 228(3):109. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11270-017-3289-5

    Google Scholar 

  57. Ola A, Dodd IC, Quinton JN (2015) Can we manipulate root system architecture to control soil erosion? Soil 1: 603–612. https://doi.org/10.5194/soil-1-603-2015

    Google Scholar 

  58. Pollen N (2007) Temporal and spatial variability in root reinforcement of streambanks: Accounting for soil shear strength and moisture. Catena 69: 197–205. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.catena.2006.05.004

    Google Scholar 

  59. Pollen N, Simon A, Thomas RE. (2013) The reinforcement of soil by roots: recent advances and directions for future research. In: Shroder J (Editor in Chief), Butler DR, Hupp CR (Eds.), Treatise on Geomorphology. Academic Press, San Diego, CA, vol. 12, Ecogeomorphology. pp 107–124.

    Google Scholar 

  60. Pollen N, Simon A (2005) Estimating the mechanical effects of riparian vegetation on stream bank stability using a fiber bundle model. Water Resour Res 41: W07025.156. https://doi.org/10.1029/2004WR003801

    Google Scholar 

  61. Pregitzer KS, Deforest JL, Burton AJ, et al. (2002) Fine root architecture of nine north American trees. Ecol Monogr 72(2): 293–309. https://doi.org/10.1890/0012-9615(2002)072[0293:fraonn]2.0.co;2

    Google Scholar 

  62. Qiao X, Li X, Guo Y, et al. (2018) In-situ experimental research on water scouring of loess slopes. Environ Earth Sci 77: 417. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12665-018-7593-1

    Google Scholar 

  63. Reubens B, Poesen J, Danjon F, et al. (2007) The role of fine and coarse roots in shallow slope stability and soil erosion with a focus on root system architecture: a review. Trees 21: 385–402. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00468-007-0132-4

    Google Scholar 

  64. Schwarz M, Rist A, Cohen D, et al. (2015) Root reinforcement of soils under compression. J Geophys Res Earth Surf 120: 2103–2120. https://doi.org/10.1002/2015JF003632

    Google Scholar 

  65. Schwarz M, Phillips C, Marden M, et al. (2016) Modelling of root reinforcement and erosion control by ‘Veronese’ poplar on pastoral hill country in New Zealand. N Z J J Fo Sci 46: 4. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40490-016-0060-4

    Google Scholar 

  66. Shit PK, Maiti R (2012) Effects of plant root density on the erodibility of lateritic topsoil by simulated flume experiment. IJFSE 2(3): 137–142.

    Google Scholar 

  67. Siqueira AG, Azevedo AA, Dozzi LFS, et al. (2015) Monitoring program of reservoir bank erosion at Porto Primavera Dam, Parana River, SP/MS, Brazil. In: Lollino G, Arattano M, Rinaldi M, et al. (eds) Engineering Geology for Society and Territory - Volume 3. Springer, Cham. pp 351–355.

    Google Scholar 

  68. Stokes A, Atger C, Bengough AG, et al. (2009) Desirable plant roots traits for protectiing natural and engineered slopes against landslides. Plant Soil 324 (1–2): 1–30. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11104-009-0159-y

    Google Scholar 

  69. Ta WQ, Jia XP, Wang HB (2013) Channel deposition induced by bank erosion in response to decreased flows in the sand-banked reach of the upstream Yellow River. Catena 105: 62–68. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.catena.2013.01.007

    Google Scholar 

  70. Tang Q, Bao YH, He XB, et al. (2014) Sedimentation and associated trace metal enrichment in the riparian zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir, China. Sci Total Environ 479–480: 258–266. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2014.01.122

    Google Scholar 

  71. Tron S, Perona P, Gorla L, et al. (2015) The signature of randomness in riparian plant root distributions. Geophys Res Lett 42: 7098–7106. https://doi.org/10.1002/2015GL064857

    Google Scholar 

  72. Vannoppen W, Poesen J, Peeters P, et al. (2016) Root properties of vegetation communities and their impact on the erosion resistance of river dikes. Earth Surf Process Landf 41(14): 2038–2046. https://doi.org/10.1002/esp.3970

    Google Scholar 

  73. Vannoppen W, Vanmaercke M, De Baets S, et al. (2015) A review of the mechanical effects of plant roots on concentrated flow erosion rates. Earth-Sci Rev 150: 666–678. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.earscirev.2015.08.011

    Google Scholar 

  74. Vergani C, Graf F (2016) Soil permeability, aggregate stability and root growth: a pot experiment from a soil bioengineering perspective. Ecohydrology 9: 830–842. https://doi.org/10.1002/eco.1686

    Google Scholar 

  75. Vilmundardottir OK, Magnusson B, Gisladottir G, et al. (2010) Shoreline erosion and aeolian deposition along a recently formed hydro-electric reservoir, bloendulon, iceland. Geomorphology 114(4): 542–555. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geomorph.2009.08.012

    Google Scholar 

  76. Waldron LJ (1977) The shear resistance of root-permeated homogeneous and stratified soil. Soil Sci Soc Am J 41: 843–849. https://doi.org/10.2136/sssaj1977.03615995004100050005x

    Google Scholar 

  77. Wang B, Zhang GH, Shi YY, et al. (2014) Soil detachment by overland flow under different vegetation restoration models in the Loess Plateau of China. Catena 116: 51–59. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.catena.2013.12.010

    Google Scholar 

  78. Wu TH, William PM, Douglas NS (1979) Strength of tree roots and landslides on Prince of Wales Island, Alaska. Can Geotech J 16(1):19–33. https://doi.org/10.1139/t79-003

    Google Scholar 

  79. Wu WD, Zheng SZ, Lu ZH, et al. (2000) Effect of plant roots on penetrability and anti-scouribility of red soil derived from granite. Pedosphere 10(2): 183–188.

    Google Scholar 

  80. Wu YH, Wang XX, Zhou J, et al. (2016) The fate of phosphorus in sediments after the full operation of the Three Gorges Reservoir, China. Environ Pollut 214: 282–289. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2016.04.029

    Google Scholar 

  81. Wynn TM, Mostaghimi S, Burger JA, et al. (2004) Variation in root density along stream banks. J Environ Qual 33: 2030–2039. https://doi.org/10.2134/jeq2004.2030

    Google Scholar 

  82. Xu XB, Tan Y, Yang GS (2013) Environmental impact assessments of the Three Gorges Project in China: Issues and interventions. Earth-Sci Rev 124: 115–125. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.earscirev.2013.05.007

    Google Scholar 

  83. Ye C, Butler OM, Chen CR, et al. (2020) Shifts in characteristics of the plant-soil system associated with flooding and revegetation in the riparian zone of Three Gorges Reservoir, China. Geoderma 361: 114015. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoderma.2019.114015

    Google Scholar 

  84. Ye C, Cheng X, Zhang Q (2014) Recovery approach affects soil quality in the water level fluctuation zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir, China: implications for revegetation. Environ Sci Pollut Res 21(3): 2018–2031. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-013-2128-5

    Google Scholar 

  85. Ye C, Li SY, Zhang Y, et al. (2013) Assessing heavy metal pollution in the water level fluctuation zone of China’s Three Gorges Reservoir using geochemical and soil microbial approaches. Environ Monit Assess 185(1): 231–240. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-012-2547-7

    Google Scholar 

  86. Zhang SJ, Tang Q, Bao YH, et al. (2018) Effects of seasonal water-level fluctuation on soil pore structure in the Three Gorges Reservoir, China. J Mt Sci 15(10):107–121. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11629-018-5013-3

    Google Scholar 

  87. Zhang S, Xiong DH, Wu H, et al. (2020) Effects of the root morphological characteristics of different herbaceous species on soil shear strength and soil anti-scourability in the dry-hot valley region of South-western China. Soil Res 58(2): 189–197. https://doi.org/10.1071/SR18327

    Google Scholar 

  88. Zhang Z, Li Q, Liu G (2017) Soil resistance to concentrated flow and sediment yields following cropland abandonment on the Loess Plateau, China. J Soil Sediment 17:1–10. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11368-017-1650-3

    Google Scholar 

  89. Zhang ZY, Wan CY, Zheng ZW, et al. (2013) Plant community characteristics and their responses to environmental factors in the water level fluctuation zone of the three gorges reservoir in China. Environ Sci Pollut Res 20(10): 7080–7091. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-013-1702-1

    Google Scholar 

  90. Zhong RH, He XB, Bao YH, et al. (2016) Estimation of soil reinforcement by the roots of four post-dam prevailing grass species in the riparian zone of Three Gorges Reservoir, China. J Mt Sci 13: 508–521. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11629-014-3397-2

    Google Scholar 

  91. Zhou ZC, Gan ZT, Shangguan ZP, et al. (2010) Effects of grazing on soil physical properties and soil erodibility in semiarid grassland of the Northern Loess Plateau (China). Catena 82: 87–91. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.catena.2010.05.005

    Google Scholar 

  92. Zhou ZC, Shangguan ZP (2007) The effects of ryegrass roots and shoots on loess erosion under simulated rainfall. Catena 70: 350–355. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.catena.2006.11.002

    Google Scholar 

  93. Zhou ZC, Shangguan ZP (2008) Effect of ryegrasses on soil runoff and sediment control. Pedosphere 18: 131–136. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1002-0160(07)60111-8

    Google Scholar 

  94. Zhou ZC, Shangguan ZP, Zhao D (2006) Modeling vegetation coverage and soil erosion in the Loess Plateau Area of China. Ecol Model 198: 263–268. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2006.04.019

    Google Scholar 

  95. Zhu KW, Chen YC, Zhang S, et al. (2020) Vegetation of the water-level fluctuation zone in the Three Gorges Reservoir at the initial impoundment stage. Glob Ecol Conserv 21: e00866. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gecco.2019.e00866

    Google Scholar 

  96. Zhu ZL, Angers D, Joseph JD, et al. (2017) Using ultrasonic energy to elucidate the effects of decomposing plant residues on soil aggregation. Soil Tillage Res 167: 1–8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.still.2016.10.002

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

This study was funded by the Projects of National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 41977075, 41771321), Chongqing Talent Program (CQYC201905009), Science Fund for Distinguished Young Scholars of Chongqing (cstc2019jcyjjqX0025), and the Sichuan Science and Technology Program (Grant no. 2018SZ0132). The authors are thankful to the two anonymous reviewers for their valuable comments on the draft manuscript.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Yu-hai Bao.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Xu, Wx., Yang, L., Bao, Yh. et al. Soil anti-scourability enhanced by herbaceous species roots in a reservoir water level fluctuation zone. J. Mt. Sci. 18, 392–406 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11629-020-6152-x

Download citation

Keywords

  • Herbaceous species root system
  • Soil anti-scourability
  • Water level fluctuation zone
  • Three Gorges Reservoir