Journal of Mountain Science

, Volume 15, Issue 2, pp 225–236 | Cite as

Role of bioengineering structures made of willow cuttings in marly sediment trapping: assessment of three real-size experiments in the Southern French Alps

Article
  • 1 Downloads

Abstract

Improving knowledge on the ability of bioengineering structures made of willow cuttings to enhance efficient and sustainable sediment trapping in marly gullies in the Southern French Alps under a mountainous Mediterranean climate, to decrease sediment yield at their outlets, is a key issue today for the international scientific community working in geosciences and ecology. This study therefore aims to assess three real-size experiments (A, B and C) carried out between 2003 and 2013 in this environment. A total of 157 bioengineering structures using purple and white willow (Salix purpurea and Salix incana) cuttings–which have been shown to resprout and survive more than 2 years after their installation, corresponding to brush layers with brush mats on wooden sills (BLM), 1.2 m wide and 2 m long, installed on the floors of 33 experimental marly gullies, were monitored. The results showed that sediment trapping occurred upstream of the vegetation barriers from the 1st year onwards. Considering the depth of sediment trapped per experiment, the mean annual values reached 11.2 cm yr-1 after 3 years in experiment A, 7.7 cm yr-1 after 2–4 years in experiment C and 5.1 cm yr-1 after 5 years in experiment B. Occasionally, BLMs showed that they could trap up to 16 and 15 cm.yr-1 in experiments A and C, respectively. Considering the volumes of sediment trapped per experiment, the mean annual values reached 0.25, 0.14 and 0.08 m3 yr-1 in experiments C, A and B, respectively. Maximum values for one structure reached 1.94 m3 per year in experiment C. The significance of the volumes of trapped sediment and the sustainability of sediment trapping are discussed, and rules for bioengineering strategies are proposed.

Keywords

Erosion Marly gully Vegetation barriers Ecological engineering Salix

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes

Acknowledgements

The author greatly thanks Sophie Labonne for her extensive field work. Eric Mermin and Pascal Tardif also contributed to this field work, as did Nicolas Talaska for the Francon catchment, Henri Brisseau, Manon Désalme, Andy Hennebelle and Didier Sabbadin for the Bouinenc catchment. The author also thanks Electricité de France (EDF), Agence de l’eau Rhône, Méditerranée et Corse, Région Provence-Alpes-Côte-d’Azur, the European Union (“L’Europe s’engage en PACA avec le Fonds Européen de Développement Régional” FEDER program) and the Ministère de l’environnement, de l’énergie et de la mer (MEEM) for financial support. The author also thanks the three anonymous reviewers for their helpful comments.

References

  1. Abu-Zreig M (2001) Factors affecting sediment trapping in vegetated filter strips: simulation study using VFSMOD. Hydrological Processes 15: 1477–1488. https://doi.org/10.1002/hyp.220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Abu-Zreig M, Rudra RP, Lalonde MN, et al. (2004) Experimental investigation of runoff reduction and sediment removal by vegetated filter strips. Hydrological Processes 18: 2029–2037. https://doi.org/10.1002/hyp.1400CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bochet E, Poesen J, Rubio JL (2000) Mound development as an interaction of individual plants with soil, water erosion and sedimentation processes on slopes. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 25: 847–867. https://doi.org/10.1002/1096-9837(200008)25:8<847::AID-ESP103>3.0.CO;2-QCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Breton V, Crosaz Y, Rey F (2016) Effects of wood chip amendments on the revegetation performance of plants species on eroded marly terrains in a Mediterranean mountainous climate (Southern Alps, France). Solid Earth 7: 1–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Burylo M, Rey F, Delcros P (2007) Abiotic and biotic factors influencing the early stages of vegetation colonization in restored marly gullies (Southern Alps, France). Ecological Engineering 30: 231–239. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoleng. 2007.01.004CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Burylo M, Dutoit T, Rey F (2014) Species traits as practical tools for ecological restoration of marly eroded lands. Restoration Ecology 22: 633–640. https://doi.org/10.1111/rec.12113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Castillo C, Gómez JA (2016) A century of gully erosion research: Urgency, complexity and study approaches. Earth-Science Reviews 160: 300–319. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.earscirev. 2016.07.009CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Dabney SM, Meyer LD, Harmon WC, et al. (1995) Depositional patterns of sediment trapped by grass hedges. Transactions of the ASAE 38: 1719–1729.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. De Baets S, Poesen J, Knapen A, et al. (2007) Root characteristics of representative Mediterranean plant species and their erosion-reducing potential during concentrated runoff. Plant and Soil 294: 169–183. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11104-007-9244-2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Descheemaeker K, Nyssen J, Rossi J, et al. (2006) Sediment deposition and pedogenesis in exclosures in the Tigray highlands, Ethiopia. Geoderma 132: 291–314. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoderma.2005.04.027CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Du HD, Jiao JY, Jia YF, et al. (2013) Phytogenic mounds of four typical shoot architecture species at different slope gradients on the Loess Plateau of China. Geomorphology 193: 57–64. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geomorph.2013.04.002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Erktan A, Rey F (2013) Linking sediment trapping efficiency with morphological traits of Salix tillers barriers on marly gully floors under ecological rehabilitation. Ecological Engineering 51: 212–220. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoleng.2012.12.003CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Erktan A, Cécillon L, Roose E, et al. (2013) Morphological diversity of plant barriers does not increase sediment retention in eroded marly gullies under ecological rehabilitation (Southern Alps, France). Plant and Soil 37: 653–669. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11104-013-1738-5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Erktan A, Lucisine P, Pianu B, et al. (2012) Role of the morphology of Salix tillers barriers in marly sediment trapping efficiency in gully floor under ecological restoration: a flume experiment. Geophysical Research Abstracts 14, CDROM.Google Scholar
  15. Gallart F, Marignani M, Pérez-Gallego N, et al. (2013) Thirty years of studies on badlands, from physical to vegetational approaches: A succinct review. Catena 106: 4–11. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.catena.2012.02.008CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Lambrechts T, François S, Lutts S, et al. (2014) Impact of plant growth and morphology and of sediment concentration on sediment retention efficiency of vegetative filter strips: Flume experiments and VFSMOD modelling. Journal of Hydrology 511: 800–810.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Lavandier G, Dangla L, Bruciamacchie M, et al. (2010) Spatiotemporal modelling and economic approach to sediment trapping in eroded marly gullies revegetated with bioengineering structures: the Simulfascine model. Revue Forestière Française 5: 525–540. https://doi.org/10.4267/2042/39864Google Scholar
  18. Lee KH, Isenhart TM, Schultz RC, et al. (1999) Nutrient and sediment removal by switchgrass and cool-season grass filter strips in Central Iowa, USA. Agroforestry Systems 44: 121–132. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1006201302242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Mathys N, Brochot S, Meunier M, et al. (2003) Erosion quantification in the small marly experimental catchments of Draix (Alpes de Haute Provence, France). Calibration of the ETC rainfall-runoff-erosion model. Catena 50: 527–548. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0341-8162(02)00122-4Google Scholar
  20. Mekonnen M, Keesstra SD, Ritsema CJ, et al. (2016) Sediment trapping with indigenous grass species showing differences in plant traits in northwest Ethiopia. Catena 147: 755–763. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.catena.2016.08.036CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Molina A, Govers G, Cisneros F, et al. (2009) Vegetation and topographic controls on sediment deposition and storage on gully beds in a degraded mountain area. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 34: 755–767. https://doi.org/10.1002/esp.1747CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Nyssen J, Haile M, Moeyersons J, et al. (2000) Soil and water conservation in Tigray (Northern Ethiopia): the traditional daget technique and its integration with introduced techniques. Land Degradation and Development 11: 199–208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Oostwoud Wijdenes DJ, Ergenzinger P (1998) Erosion and sediment transport on steep marly hillslopes, Draix, Haute-Provence, France: An experimental field study. Catena 33: 179–200. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0341-8162(98)00076-9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Osman N, Barakbah SS (2011) The effect of plant succession on slope stability. Ecological Engineering 37: 139–147. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoleng.2010.08.002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Pan D, Gao X, Dyck M, et al. (2017) Dynamics of runoff and sediment trapping performance of vegetative filter strips: Run-on experiments and modeling. Science of the Total Environment 593–594: 54–64. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoleng.2010.08.002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Podwojewski P, Janeau JL, Grellier S, et al. (2011) Influence of grass soil cover on water runoff and soil detachment under rainfall simulation in a sub-humid South African degraded rangeland. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 36: 911–922. https://doi.org/10.1002/esp.2121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Rey F (2009) A strategy for fine sediment retention with bioengineering works in eroded marly catchments in a mountainous Mediterranean climate. Land Degradation and Development 20: 210–216. https://doi.org/10.1002/ldr.905CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Rey F, Della Torre S (2005) Cuttings regeneration of various species on eroded marly catchments under a mountainous and Mediterranean climate (Southern Alps, France). Geophysical Research Abstracts 7, CD-ROM.Google Scholar
  29. Rey F, Labonne S (2011) Resistance and efficiency of bioengineering works made of willow species for sedimentation and erosion control in eroded marly gullies (Francon catchment, Draix, France). Geophysical Research Abstracts 13, CD-ROM.Google Scholar
  30. Rey F, Burylo M (2014) Can bioengineering structures made of willow cuttings trap sediment in eroded marly gullies in a mountainous and Mediterranean climate (Southern Alps, France)? Geomorphology 204: 564–572. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geomorph.2013.09.003CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Rey F, Labonne S (2015) Resprout and survival of willow (Salix) cuttings on bioengineering structures in actively eroding gullies in marls in a mountainous Mediterranean climate: a large-scale experiment in the Francon catchment (Southern Alps, France). Environmental Management 56: 971–983. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00267-015-0542-9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Rey F, Labonne S, Breton V, et al. (2015) Innovative use of soil bioengineering for erosion and sedimentation control in the Durance catchment. Sciences, eaux et territoires 16: 28–35.Google Scholar
  33. Vallauri D (1999) Which future for Austrian black pine regeneration on marly badlands in the Southern Alps? Revue Forestière Française 51: 612–626. https://doi.org/10.4267/2042/5470CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Vallauri D, Aronson J, Barbero M (2002) An analysis of forest restoration 120 years after reforestation on badlands in the Southwestern Alps. Restoration Ecology 10: 16–26. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1526-100X.2002.10102.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Vaezi AR, Abbasi M, Keesstra S, et al. (2017) Assessment of soil particle erodibility and sediment trapping using check dams in small semi-arid catchments. Catena 157: 227–240. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.catena.2017.05.021CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Van-Dijk PM, Kwaad FJPM, Klapwijk M (1996) Retention of water and sediment by grass strips. Hydrological Processes 10: 1069–1080.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Vannoppen W, Vanmaerckea M, De Baets S, et al. (2015) A review of the mechanical effects of plant roots on concentrated flow erosion rates. Earth-Science Reviews 150: 666–678. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.earscirev.2015.08.011CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Vergani C, Graf F (2015) Soil permeability, aggregate stability and root growth: a pot experiment from a soil bioengineering perspective. Ecohydrology 9: 830–842. https://doi.org/10.1002/eco.1686CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Yan ZX, Ren ZH, Yan CM, et al. (2013) Study on original ecological tridimensional slope vegetation. Journal of mountain science 10: 932–939. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11629-013-2478-yCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Zhang HY, Shi ZH, Fang NF, et al. (2015) Linking watershed geomorphic characteristics to sediment yield: Evidence from the Loess Plateau of China. Geomorphology 234: 19–27. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geomorph.2015.01.014CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Zhou ZC, Gan ZT, Shangguan ZP (2013) Sediment trapping from hyperconcentrated flow as affected by grass filter strips. Pedosphere 23: 372–375. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1002-0160(13)60028-4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Zhu H, Fu B, Wang S, et al. (2015) Reducing soil erosion by improving community functional diversity in semi-arid grasslands. Journal of Applied Ecology 52: 1063–1072. https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2664.12442CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Wei W, Chen L, Fu B, et al. (2009) Responses of water erosion to rainfall extremes and vegetations types in a loess semiarid hilly area, NW China. Hydrological Processes 23: 1780–1791. https://doi.org/10.1002/hyp.7294CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Science Press, Institute of Mountain Hazards and Environment, CAS and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Univ. Grenoble Alpes, Irstea GrenobleUR EMGRSt-Martin-d’Hères cedexFrance

Personalised recommendations