Advertisement

Journal of Mountain Science

, Volume 15, Issue 2, pp 319–326 | Cite as

Tempo-spatial variations of sediment-associated nutrients and contaminants in the Ruxi tributary of the Three Gorges Reservoir, China

  • Zhong-lin Shi
  • Yong-yan Wang
  • An-bang Wen
  • Dong-chun Yan
  • Jia-cun Chen
Article
  • 42 Downloads

Abstract

Ruxi River is a tributary of the Three Gorges Reservoir. This study examined the temporal and spatial dynamics in particle size characteristics and the associated nutrients and contaminants of the fluvial suspended and deposited sediments along the Ruxi River. Temporal variations in the particle size distribution of the suspended sediment are controlled mainly by differences in sediment source during different seasons. Total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorous (TP) in the < 62 μm fraction of the suspended sediment exhibit considerably higher concentrations in spring, indicating high probability of algal blooms in the backwater areas. Downstream trends in the nutrient contents of < 62 μm deposited sediments imply the greatest potential for eutrophication in the backwater ends, where highest nutrient concentrations were detected. Assessment of metal contamination shows that the sediments deposited in the water-level fluctuation zone were moderately to strongly contaminated by Cadmium (Cd), with a considerably high potential ecological risk. The findings reported have emphasized the impacts of reservoir impoundment on aquatic and/or terrestrial environment in this region. More information on physical, chemical and biological processes of sediment and sediment-associated materials are needed for developing environmentally and ecologically sound policies of water and sediment management.

Keywords

Sediments Nutrients Trace metals Water-level fluctuation zone Ruxi tributary Three Gorges Reservoir 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes

Acknowledgements

The study reported in this paper was financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (41430750, 41301293) and the National Key R&D Program of China (2017YFD0800505, 2016YFC0402301).

References

  1. Bao YH, Gao P, He XB (2015) The water-level fluctuation zone of Three Gorges reservoir–A unique geomorphological unit. Earth-Science Reviews 150: 14–24. https://doi.org/10.1016/j. earscirev.2015.07.005CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Domínguez MT, Alegre JM, Madejón P, et al. (2016) River banks and channels as hotspots of soil pollution after largescale remediation of a river basin. Geoderma 261: 133–140. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoderma.2015.07.008CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Engin MS, Uyanik A, Cay S, et al. (2010) Effect of the adsorptive character of filter papers on the concentrations determined in studies involving heavy metal ions. Adsorption Science & Technology 28: 838–846. https://doi.org/10.1260/02636174. 28.10.837CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Fu BJ, Wu BF, Lü YH, et al. (2010) Three Gorges Project: Efforts and challenges for the environment. Progress in Physical Geography 34: 741–754. https://doi.org/10.1177/0309133310370286CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ghrefat HA, Abu-Rukah Y, Rosen MA (2011) Application of geoaccumulation index and enrichment factor for assessing metal contamination in the sediments of Kafrain Dam, Jordan. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 178: 95–109. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-010-1675-1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Haskanson L (1980) An ecological risk index for aquatic pollution control a sedimentological approach. Water Research 14: 975–1001. https://doi.org/10.1016/00431354 (80)90143-8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Horowitz AJ (2009) Monitoring suspended sediments and associated chemical constituents in urban environments: lessons from the city of Atlanta, Georgia, USA Water Quality Monitoring Program. Journal of Soils and Sediments 9: 342–363. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11368-009-0092-yCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Kroes DE, Schenk ER, Noe GB, et al. (2015) Sediment and nutrient trapping as a result of a temporary Mississippi River floodplain restoration: the Morganza spillway during the 2011 Mississippi River Flood. Ecological Engineering 82: 91–102. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoleng.2015.04.056CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Loring DH, Rantala RTT (1992) Manual for the geochemical analyses of marine sediments and suspended particulate matter. Earth-Science Reviews 32: 235–283. https://doi.org/10.1016/0012-8252(92)90001-ACrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Ma X, Li Y, Li BL, et al. (2016) Nitrogen and phosphorus losses by runoff erosion: Field data monitored under natural rainfall in Three Gorges reservoir Area, China. Catena 147: 797–808. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.catena.2016.09.004CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. MEP (2015) The Ecological and Environmental Monitoring Bulletin of the Three Gorges Project on Yangtze River.Google Scholar
  12. Müller G (1986) Pollutants in sediment-sediments as pollutants. Austrian Journal of Earth Sciences 79: 107–126. (In German)Google Scholar
  13. Owens PN, Batalla RJ, Collins AJ, et al. (2005) Fine-grained sediment in river systems: environmental significance and management issues. River Research and Applications 21: 693–717. https://doi.org/10.1002/rra.878CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Song YX, Ji JF, Mao CP, et al. (2010) Heavy metal contamination in suspended solids of Changjiang River–environmental implications. Geoderma 159: 286–295. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoderma.2010.07.020CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Tang J, Zhong YP, Wang L (2008) Background value of soil heavy metal in the Three Gorges Reservoir District. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture 16: 848–852. https://doi.org/10.3724/SP.J.1011.2008.00848CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Tang JL, Wang T, Zhu B, et al. (2015) Tempo-spatial analysis of water quality in tributary bays of the Three Gorges reservoir region (China). Environmental Science and Pollution Research 22: 16709–16720. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-015-4805-zCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Tang Q, Bao YH, He XB, et al. (2014) Sedimentation and associated trace metal enrichment in the riparian zone of the Three Gorges reservoir, China. Science of the Total Environment 479–480: 258–266. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2014.01.122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Taylor KG, Owens PN (2009) Sediments in urban river basins: a review of sediment-contaminant dynamics in an environmental system conditioned by human activities. Journal of Soils and Sediments 9: 281–303. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11368-009-0103-zCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Walling DE (2013) The evolution of sediment source fingerprinting investigations in fluvial systems. Journal of Soils and Sediments 13: 1658–1675. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11368-013-0767-2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Walling DE, Moorehead PW (1989) The particle-size characteristics of fluvial suspended sediment: an overview. Hydrobiologia 176: 125–149. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00026549CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Walling DE, Owens PN, Carter J, et al. (2003) Storage of sediment-associated nutrients and contaminants in river channel and floodplain systems. Applied Geochemistry 18: 195–220. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0883-2927(02)00121-XCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Wang YY, Wen AB, Guo J, et al. (2017) Spatial distribution, sources and ecological risk assessment of heavy metals in Shenjia River watershed of the Three Gorges Reservoir Area. Journal of Mountain Science 14: 325–335. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11629-016-3838-1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Xiao R, Bai JH, Huang LB, et al. (2013) Distribution and pollution, toxicity and risk assessment of heavy metals in sediments from urban and rural rivers of the Pearl River delta in southern China. Ecotoxicology 22: 1564–1575. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10646-013-1142-1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Xu YY, Cai QH, Shao ML, et al. (2009) Seasonal dynamics of suspended solids in a giant subtropical reservoir (China) in relation to internal processes and hydrological features. Quaternary International 208: 138–144. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quaint.2008.12.019CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Xu YY, Zhang M, Wang L, et al. (2011) Changes in water types under the regulated mode of water level in Three Gorges reservoir, China. Quaternary International 244: 272–279. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quaint.2011.01.019CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Ye L, Xu YY, Han XQ, et al. (2006) Daily Dynamics of Nutrients and Chlorophyll a during a Spring Phytoplankton Bloom in Xiangxi Bay of the Three Gorges Reservoir. Journal of Freshwater Ecology 21: 315–321. https://doi.org/10.1080/02705060.2006.9665001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Yoon JK, Cao XD, Zhou QX, et al. (2006) Accumulation of Pb, Cu, and Zn in native plants growing on a contaminated Florida site. Science of the Total Environment 368: 456–464. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2006.01.016CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Zhang M, Shao ML, Xu YY, et al. (2010) Effect of hydrological regime on the macroinvertebrate community in Three-Gorges Reservoir, China. Quaternary International 226: 129–135. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quaint.2009.12.019CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Zhang M, Xu YY, Shao ML, et al. (2012) Sedimentary nutrients in the mainstream and its five tributary bays of a large subtropical reservoir (Three Gorges Reservoir, China). Quaternary International 282: 171–177. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quaint.2012.02.054CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Science Press, Institute of Mountain Hazards and Environment, CAS and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Mountain Surface Processes and Ecological Regulation, Institute of Mountain Hazards and EnvironmentChinese Academy of SciencesChengduChina
  2. 2.University of Chinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina

Personalised recommendations