Effect of sodium butyrate on cell proliferation and cell cycle in porcine intestinal epithelial (IPEC-J2) cells

  • Yueqin Qiu
  • Xianyong Ma
  • Xuefen Yang
  • Li Wang
  • Zongyong Jiang


Conflicting results have been reported that butyrate in normal piglets leads either to an increase or to a decrease of jejunal villus length, implying a possible effect on the proliferation of enterocytes. No definitive study was found for the biological effects of butyrate in porcine jejunal epithelial cells. The present study used IPEC-J2 cells, a non-transformed jejunal epithelial line to evaluate the direct effects of sodium butyrate on cell proliferation, cell cycle regulation, and apoptosis. Low concentrations (0.5 and 1 mM) of butyrate had no effect on cell proliferation. However, at 5 and 10 mM, sodium butyrate significantly decreased cell viability, accompanied by reduced levels of p-mTOR and PCNA protein. Sodium butyrate, in a dose-dependent manner, induced cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase and reduced the numbers of cells in S phase. In addition, relative expression of p21, p27, and pro-apoptosis bak genes, and protein levels of p21Waf1/Cip1, p27Kip1, cyclinD3, CDK4, and Cleave-caspase3 were increased by higher concentrations of sodium butyrate (1, 5, 10 mM), and the levels of cyclinD1 and CDK6 were reduced by 5 and 10 mM butyrate. Butyrate increased the phosphorylated form of the signaling molecule p38 and phosphorylated JNK. In conclusion, the present in vitro study indicated that sodium butyrate inhibited the proliferation of IPEC-J2 cells by inducing cell cycle arrest in the G0/G1 phase of cell cycles and by increasing apoptosis at high concentrations.


Sodium butyrate IPEC-J2 cells Cell proliferation Cell cycle arrest Apoptosis 



We gratefully acknowledge W. B. Currie (Cornell University, Ithaca, NY) for suggestions on presentation. This work was supported by grants from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 31402086); Guangdong international science and technology cooperation program (2014A050503049), National Basic Research Program (973) of China (No. 2013CB127301, 2013CB127304), and the Science and Technology Program of Guangdong Province (2016LM1080, 2016A020210041, 2013A061401020).


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© The Society for In Vitro Biology 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Livestock and Poultry Breeding, Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition and Feed Science in South China, Guangdong Public Laboratory of Animal Breeding and Nutrition, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Animal Breeding and Nutrition, Institute of Animal ScienceGuangdong Academy of Agricultural SciencesGuangzhouChina

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