Table 3 Modeling of industry technologies in IAMs: in steel and in cement sub-sector

From: Industrial decarbonization under Japan’s national mitigation scenarios: a multi-model analysis

Technologies worldwide (steel sub-sector) GHG reduction potential TRL Technologies (under development included) in EU Technologies (under development included) in Japan Technologies covered by JMIP participating models
Current EAF (depends on
electricity intensity)
Up to 99%     All
BF-BOF w/ top gas recirculation & CCUS (Leeson et al. 2017; Axelson et al. 2018; Birat 2011) 60% High Advanced direct reduction with CCS; EC 2013) CCUS (recovery/recycling from byproduct gases; JISF 2019) All
HIsarna with concentrated CCUS (Axelson et al. 2018) 80–90% Medium HIsarna (CCS; EECRsteel 2011) Ferro-coke process (NEDO 2019)  
Hydrogen direct reduced iron (Fischedick et al., 2014; Vogl et al., 2018) 99% Medium Hydrogen direct reduced iron Internal hydrogen (JISF 2019) IEEJ_Japan 2017, TIMES-Japan
Aqueous and Molten Oxide electrolysis (Axelson et al., 2018;
Fischedick et al., 2014)
99% Low Electrolysis process (EC 2013)   
Technologies worldwide (cement sub-sector) GHG reduction potential TRL Technologies (under development included) in EU Technologies (under development included) in Japan Technologies covered by JMIP participating models
Clinker substitution (e.g., limestone + calcined clays) 40–50% High Further reduction of clinker content (ECRA 2017) Improve efficiency
(cooler, kiln, preheater, etc.; JCA 2013)
All
Alternative lower GHG fuels (e.g., waste biofuels and hydrogen) 40% High Alternative fuels, Fuel switching, waste heat recovery
(steam, ORC, Kalina Cycle; ECRA 2017)
Alternative fuels and waste heat recovery (JCA 2013) All
CCUS for process heating & Calcination-carbonation cycle (Moore 2017; Leeson et al. 2017) 99% calc.,
 <  = 90% heat
Medium Post-combustion capture Calcination-carbonation cycle All
Electrification of the calciner (Hills et al. 2016, 2017) 60% Medium    
Magnesium or ultramafic cements (Lehne and Preston 2018; Scrivener et al. 2018; Gartner and Sui, 2017) Can be negative Low    
  1. Notes: Technology readiness level (TRL). For the steel sub-sector, the current global average emission intensity is 1.83 tCO2-eq/t (Worldsteel 2019); the details of more conventional mitigation measures (e.g., coke dry quechning, top pressure recovery turbine, etc.) are not included in this table. For the cement sub-sector, the current global average emission intensity is 0.55 tCO2-eq/t (ECRA 2017); the details of more conventional mitigation measures (e.g., pre-heaters) are not included in this table.