Group-based lifestyle change programs based on the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) are associated with clinically significant weight loss and decreases in cardiometabolic risk factors. However, these benefits depend on successful real-world implementation. Studies have examined implementation in community settings, but less is known about integration in healthcare systems, and particularly in large, multi-site systems with the potential for extended reach.
To examine the barriers and facilitators to successful DPP implementation in a large multi-site healthcare system.
Semi-structured interviews, based on the RE-AIM framework, were conducted in person for 30–90 min each.
Past and present DPP lifestyle coaches in the healthcare system identified using purposive sampling.
Thematic analysis of qualitative data to identify key factors influencing the success of DPP implementation. An iterative consensus process was used to model the relationships among factors.
We conducted 33 interviews across 20 clinic sites serving 12 counties. Participants described six key factors as potential barriers or facilitators to implementation, including (1) Broader Context, including the surrounding physical and sociodemographic context; (2) Institutional Context, including finances, infrastructure, and personnel; (3) Program Provision, including curriculum, administration, cost, goals, and visibility; (4) Recruitment Process, including screening and referrals; (5) Lifestyle Coaches, including their characteristics, behaviors, and morale; and (6) Cohort, including group attrition/retention and interpersonal dynamics. These factors were both highly interconnected in their impact on implementation and widely variable across sites within the healthcare system, as illustrated in our multi-level conceptual framework.
This study identified key factors that could serve as barriers or facilitators in the implementation of DPP in large healthcare systems, from the perspective of lifestyle coaches. With further examination, the conceptual model presented here may be used for planning and managing the implementation of group-based behavioral interventions in these settings.
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The dataset, which includes participants’ transcripts, is not publicly available due to confidentiality policies.
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Research reported in this publication was supported by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) of the National Institutes of Health under Award Number R18DK110739. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health.
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they do not have a conflict of interest.
Consent for Publication
All participants provided written consent before participating in the study, which included consent to publish anonymous quotes from individual participants.
This was an investigator-initiated study by Sutter Health Research. No sponsor or funding source had a role in the design or conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, or interpretation of the data; or preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript.
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Halley, M.C., Petersen, J., Nasrallah, C. et al. Barriers and Facilitators to Real-world Implementation of the Diabetes Prevention Program in Large Healthcare Systems: Lifestyle Coach Perspectives. J GEN INTERN MED 35, 1684–1692 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11606-020-05744-y
- Diabetes Prevention Program
- semi-structured interviews