Gender identity disparities in Pap test use in a sample of binary and non-binary transmasculine adults
Transmasculine individuals (i.e., individuals assigned female at birth who self-identify as men, transgender men, female-to-male [FTM], or another transmasculine gender identity) are at risk of developing cervical cancer1 but face notable barriers to screening.2,3 Although transmasculine individuals are a heterogeneous population composed of persons with diverse gender identities,4 no prior study to our knowledge has examined whether cervical cancer screening differs between individuals assigned female at birth who self-identify as men, transgender men, or FTM (i.e., binary) and those who self-identify as another transmasculine gender identity such as neither exclusively male nor female, agender, or genderqueer (i.e., non-binary).
In 2015–2016, 150 transmasculine adults living in the Greater Boston area completed a self-administered survey on their sociodemographic characteristics and sexual health. Inclusion criteria were (1) ages 21–64 years; (2) assigned female...
KEY WORDSCervical cancer Screening Transmasculine Gender identity Health disparities
We are grateful to the transmasculine individuals who participated in this study. We would also like to thank the study Task Force (Tre’Andre Valentine, Mason Dunn, Landen Motyka, Thomas Lewis, Ruben Hopwood, MDiv, PhD, Yvonne Gomez-Carrion, MD, Joshua Safer, MD, FACP, Julie Thompson, PA-C, Van Bailey, EdD, and Elizabeth Boskey, PhD) and study providers (Timothy Cavanaugh, MD, Tracey Toner, NP, Ellie Doig, NP, Ryan Tappin, NP, and Jessica Piccirilli, PA).
This research was funded by a Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI) grant awarded to Dr. Sari Reisner (CER-1403-12625; CinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02401867).
Compliance with ethical standards
This study was approved by the Fenway Health Institutional Review Board.
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they do not have any conflict of interest.
- 2.Tabaac AR, Sutter ME, Wall CS, Baker KE. Gender identity disparities in cancer screening behaviors. Am J Prev Med 2018. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2017.11.009.
- 4.James SE, Herman JL, Rankin S, Keisling M, Mottet L, Anafi M. The report of the 2015 U.S. Transgender Survey. Washington, DC: National Center for Transgender Equality. 2016. Available at: http://www.transequality.org/sites/default/files/docs/USTS-Full-Report-FINAL.PDF. Accessed November 1, 2017.