Techniques of adrenal venous sampling in patients with inferior vena cava or renal vein anomalies
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To review the techniques and technical success rate of adrenal venous sampling (AVS) in patients with inferior vena cava (IVC) or renal vein anomalies.
Materials and methods
The techniques and success rate of AVS in 15 patients with anomalies [8 with double IVC (dIVC), 3 with left IVC (ltIVC), 2 with retroaortic left renal vein (LRV), and 2 with circumaortic LRV] underwent AVS was retrospectively reviewed.
Among 11 patients with IVC anomalies, the success rates for sampling the right and left adrenal veins (RAV and LAV) were 81.8 and 90.9%, respectively. In dIVC, the LAV was selected using the following four methods: approaching through the right IVC from the right femoral vein, flipping the LAV catheter tip in the LRV (n = 4) or the interiliac-communicating vein (n = 1), or through the ltIVC from the right (n = 1) or left (n = 2) femoral vein. Among the four patients with LRV anomalies, the success rate was 100% for each adrenal vein.
AVS can be successfully performed in patients with anomalies. The key to technical success is understanding the venous anatomy based on pre-procedural CT images and choosing appropriate methods.
KeywordsVenous anomalies Adrenal venous sampling AVS Interventional radiology Primary aldosteronism
We have no acknowledgement.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors have declared no conflicts of interest.
This retrospective, single-institution study was approved by the institutional review board of our facility.
Written informed consent for the inclusion of individual patient data in the analysis was waived because of the retrospective nature of the investigation. All patients gave their consent for the AVS procedure.
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