Voltammetric characteristics and determination of clothianidin using a bismuth bulk annular band electrode regenerated in situ
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A new DP AdSV method was developed for the determination of the pesticide clothianidin (Clo) based on its nitro group reduction at the in situ renovated bismuth bulk annular band working electrode (BiABE). Crucial point of the proposed procedure is simple and fast regeneration of the BiABE’s surface in the presence of testing solution, by application of the activation potential (E act = −1.5 V) and next short accumulation potential (E acc = −0.6 V). The voltammetric behaviour of clothianidin has been investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV). The experimental variables such as; potential and time of activation or accumulation, pH, concentration of the supporting electrolyte, DP mode parameters and influence of possible interferences on the Clo signal response, were tested. In the optimized conditions, the peak current was proportional to the concentration of Clo over the range from 0.2 to 23.4 μmol L−1 (0.050 to 5.84 mg L−1) with R = 0.9996. The calculated value of LOD was 0.047 μmol L−1 (0.012 mg L−1) (at S/N = 3), and sensitivity was 0.094 μA/μmol L−1, for 5 s of the accumulation time. The relative standard deviation for 2 μmol L−1 of Clo was 4.2% (n = 5). The presented results were obtained without any pre-concentration time. Finally, the proposed method was successfully applied for determination of Clo in the spiked tap and river waters samples with the recovery test.
KeywordsBismuth bulk electrode Electrode regeneration Determination of clothianidin Environmental analysis
This work was supported by the Polish National Science Centre (Project No. 2015/19/B/ST5/01380).
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