, Volume 23, Issue 11, pp 3227–3233 | Cite as

Existence of electrochromic reversibility at the 1000th cyclic voltammetry for spin coating WO3 film

  • D. R. Sahu
  • Cheng-Yen Hung
  • Sheng-Chang Wang
  • Jow-Lay Huang
Original Paper


The precursor solutions prepared using sol-gel method are used for the synthesis of WO3 films by spin coating method. The onset of the crystalline phase of WO3 occurs at 400 °C and it becomes completely crystalline at 500 °C. However, the amorphous film shows an excellent transmittance modulation effect on the visible light than that of crystalline film. The film shows electrochemical reversibility up to 1000th cycle voltammetry and excellent electrochromic behavior. The electrochromic properties of WO3 film deteriorate after annealing of the crystalline film but their chemical stability is better than the amorphous films. The crystalline film decays very slowly after electrochemical cycles. The electrochromic activity of the studied film indicates that the film has the potential to be used for smart window applications.


Electrochromism Sol-gel method Tungsten oxide Cyclic voltammetry 



The authors are thankful for the financial grant received from the National Science Council, Taiwan under contract no. NSC 96-2218-E-006-006.


  1. 1.
    Granqvist CG (2000) Sol Energy Mater Sol Cells 60:201–262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Rong H, Shen Y, Zhao L, Yan M (2012) Adv Powder Technol 23:211–214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Park C, Seo S, Shin H, Sarwade BD, Na J, Kim E (2015) Chem Sci 6:596–602CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Faughnan BW, Crandall RS, Heyman PM (1977) RCA Review 36:177Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Niklasson GA, Granqvist CG (2007) J Mater Chem 17:127–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Schirmer OF, Wittwer V, Baur G, Brandt G (1977) J Electrochem Soc 124:749CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Fang Y, Sun X, Cao H (2011) J Sol-Gel Sci Technol 59:145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Dajaoued Y, Priya S, Balaji S (2008) J Non Crystall Solids 354:673CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ahn HJ, Shim HS, Sung YE, Seong TY, Kim WB (2007) Electro Chem Solid State Lett. 10: E27Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Solarska R, Alexander BD, Augustynski J (2006) C R Chimie 9:301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Deepa M, Srivastava AK, Singh S, Agnihotry SA (2004) J Mater Res 19:2576CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    He JL, Chiu MC (2000) Surf Coat Technol 127:43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Lu HH (2008) J Alloy Com 465:429CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Meda L, Breitkopf RC, Hass TE, Kriss RU (2002) Thin Solid Films 402:126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Joraid AA (2009) Current Appl. Phys 9:73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Deepa M, Singh DP, Shivaprasad SM, Agnihotry SA (2007) Current Appl Phys 7:220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Deepa M, Sharma R, Basu A, Agnihotry SA (2005) Electrochim Acta 50:3545CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Granqvist CG, Azens A, Hjelm A, Kullman L, Niklasson GA, Rönnow D, Strømme Mattsson M, Veszelei M, Vaivars G (1988) Sol Energy 63:199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Joraid AA, Alamri SN (2007) Physics B: Condensed Matter 391:199–205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Hossain MF, Takahashi T (2013) Procedia Engineering 56:702CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Srichaiyaperk T, Aiempanakit K, Horprathum M, Eiamchai P, Chananonnawathorn C, Limwichean S, Chindaudom P (2014) Adv Mater Res 979:248–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Wang Z, Hu X (2001) Electrochim Acta 46:1951CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Ashtiani HN, Bahari A (2016) Opt Mater 58:704–709Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Adhikari S, Sarkar D, Maiti HS (2014) Mater Res Bulletin 49:325CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Horose T (1980) J Phys Soc Jpn 49:562CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Mohammad AA, Gillet M (2002) Thin Solid Films 408:302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Ramana CV, Utsunomiya S, Ewing RC, Julien CM, Becker U (2006) J Phys Chem B 110:10430CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Vogt T, Woodward PM, Hunter BA (1999) J Solid State Chem 144:209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Klug HP, Alexander LE (1974) X-ray diffraction procedures, 2nd edn. Willey, New York, p 695Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Yang H, Shang F, Gao L, Han H (2007) Appl Surf Sci 253:553Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Souza-Filho AG, Freire VN, Sasaki JN, Filho JM, Juliao JF, Gomes UU (2000) J Raman Spectrosc 31:451CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Deepa M, Saxena TX, Singh DP, Sood KN, Agnihotry SA (2006) ElectroChimca Acta 51:1974CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Cai G, Cui M, Kuar V, Darmawan P, Wang J, Wang X, Eh A, Lee PS (2016) Chem Sci 7:1373CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Badilescu S, Ashrit PV (2003) Solid State Ionics 158:187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Masoomeh S, Abdolijavad N, Hassan N (2006) Iran J Chem Chem Eng 25:25Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Xie Z, Gao L, Liang B, Wang X, Chen G, Liu Z, Chao J, Chen D, Shen G (2012) J Mater Chem 22:19904–19910CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Priya R, Setu Raman M, Senthilkumar N, Balan R (2012) Int J Sci Res 2319:28–31Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Deepa M, Joshi AG, Srivastava AK, Shivaprasad SM, Agnihotry SA (2006) J Electrochem Soc 153:C365CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Bright TJ, Watjen JI, Zhang ZM, Muratore C, Voevodin AA, Koukis DI, Tanner DB, Arenas DJ (2013) J Appl Phys 114:083515CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Kamal H, Akl AA, Abdel-Hady K (2004) Physica B 349:31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Svensson JS, Cranqvist CG (1985) Thin Solid Films 126:31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Ashrit PV (2001) Thin Solid Films 385:81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Cogan SF, Plante TD, Plante MA, Parker RD, Rauh RD (1986) Solar Energy Materials 14:185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Karadeniz SM, Kkinci AE, Tartar D, Ertugrul M (2014) Inter J Appl Sci Tech 4:136Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Ashtiani HN, Bahari A (2016) Opt Mater 58:210–218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Patel KJ, Pancha CJ, Desai MS, Mehta PK (2010) Mater Chem Phys 124:884CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Kim DJ, Pyun SI (1997) Solid State Ionics 99:185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Wang CK, Sahu DR, Wang SC, Lin CK, Huang JL (2012) J Phys D Appl Physics 45:225303CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Natural and Applied SciencesNamibia University of Science and TechnologyWindhoekNamibia
  2. 2.Department of Materials Science and EngineeringNational Cheng Kung UniversityTainanTaiwan
  3. 3.Department of Mechanical EngineeringSouthern Taiwan University of Science and TechnologyTainanTaiwan
  4. 4.Center for Micro/Nano Science and TechnologyNational Cheng Kung UniversityTainanTaiwan
  5. 5.Research Center for Energy Technology and StrategyNational Cheng Kung UniversityTainanTaiwan

Personalised recommendations