, Volume 23, Issue 11, pp 3067–3071 | Cite as

Electrochemical behavior of carbonic precursor with Na3V2(PO4)3nanostructured material in hybrid battery system

  • Prince Babbar
  • Aleksandr Ivanishchev
  • Alexei Churikov
  • Ambesh Dixit
Original Paper


The nanostructured Na3V2(PO4)3 (NVP) cathode material has been synthesized using the sol-gel route for different molar fractions of citric acid as a carbon source during the synthesis. The nanostructured NVP as cores with carbonic shell structures are fabricated with two different citric acid molar ratios. The thermal treatment has been optimized to convert the amorphous carbon shell into graphitic carbon to realize the better electrical conductivity and thus effective electron transfer during the electrochemical charge transfer process. The X-ray diffraction measurements confirmed the rhombohedral crystallographic phase (space group R-3c) with average crystallite size ~28 ± 5 nm. The coin cells are assembled in a hybrid rechargeable electrochemical cell configuration with lithium as a counter electrode and LiPF6-EC:DEC:DMC (1:1:1 ratio) as the electrolyte. The electrochemical charge/discharge measurements are carried out at C/10 and C/20 rates and the measured specific capacities are 80 and 120 mAhg−1 for samples with lower and higher citric acid molar ratios, respectively. The studies suggest that NVP can be used as an effective cathode material in hybrid electrochemical cells, and a higher concentration of citric acid may result in the effective carbonic shell for optimal electron transfer and thus enhanced electrochemical performance.


Na3V2(PO4)3 NASICON Cathode material Carbon percentage effect 



The author Ambesh Dixit acknowledges the Department of Science and Technology (DST), Government of India (project #INT/RUS/RFBR/P-190), for the financial support for this work. The authors Aleksandr Ivanishchev and Alexei Churikov acknowledge the Russian Science Foundation (project #15-13-10006) and by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (projects #14-29-04005, #15-53-45091).


  1. 1.
    Tarascon J-M (2010) Is lithium the new gold? Nat Chem 2:510CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Aragon MJ, Lavela P, Ortiz GF, Tirado JL (2015) Effect of iron substitution in the electrochemical performance of Na3V2(PO4)3 as cathode for Na-Ion batteries. J Electrochem Soc 162:A3077–A3083CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Marom R, Amalraj SF, Leifer N, Jacob D, Aurbach D (2011) A review of advanced and practical lithium battery materials. J Mater Chem 21:9938–9954CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Scrosati B, Garche J (2010) Lithium batteries: status, prospects, and future. J Power Sources 195:2419–2430CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kubota K, Komaba S (2015) Review—practical issues and future perspective for Na-ion batteries. J Electrochem Soc 162:2538–2550CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Sawicki M, Shaw LL (2015) Advances and challenges of sodium ion batteries as post lithium ion batteries. RSC Adv 5:53129–53154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Palomares V, Serras P, Villaluenga I, Hueso KB, Carretero-gronz J (2012) Na-ion batteries , recent advances and present challenges to become low cost energy storage systems. Energy Environ Sci 5:5884–5901CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Duan W, Zhu Z, Li H, Hu Z, Zhang K, Cheng F, Chen J (2014) Na3V2(PO4)3@ C core–shell nanocomposites for rechargeable sodium-ion batteries. J Mater Chem A 2:8668CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Lia Y, Hua YS, Qia X, Ronga X, Lia H, Huanga X, Chena L (2016) Advanced sodium-ion batteries using superior low cost pyrolyzed anthracite anode: towards practical applications. Energy Storage Materials 5:191–197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Mu L, Xu S, Li Y, Hu YS, Li H, Chen L, Huang X (2015) Prototype sodium-ion batteries using an air-stable and Co/Ni-free O3-layered metal oxide cathode. Adv Mater 27:6928–6933CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Li Y, Mu L, Hu YS, Li H, Chen L, Huang X (2016) Pitch derived amorphous carbon as high performance anode for sodium-ionbatteries. Energy Storage Materials 2:139–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Li Y, Hu YS, Li H, Chen L, Huang L (2016) A superior low-cost amorphous carbon anode made from pitch and lignin for sodium-ion batteries. J Mater Chem A 4:96–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Yabuuchi N, Kubota K, Dahbi M, Komaba S (2014) Research development on sodium-ion batteries. Chem Rev 114:11636–11682CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Li G, Jiang D, Wang H, Lan X, Zhong H, Jiang Y (2014) Glucose-assisted synthesis of Na3V2(PO 4)3/C composite as an electrode material for high-performance sodium-ion batteries. J Power Sources 265:325–334CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Song W, Ji X, Yao Y, Zhu H, Chen Q, Sun Q, Banks CE (2014) A promising Na3V2(PO4)3 cathode for use in the construction of high energy batteries. Phys Chem Chem Phys 16:3055–3061CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Jian Z, Sun Y, Ji X (2015) A new low-voltage plateau of Na3V2(PO4)3 as an anode for Na-ion batteries. Chem Commun 51:6381–6383CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Nie P, Zhu Y, Shen L, Pang G, Xu G, Dong S, Dou H, Zhang X (2014) From biomolecule to Na3V2(PO4)3/nitrogen-decorated carbon hybrids: highly reversible cathodes for sodium-ion batteries. J Mater Chem A 2:18606–18612Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Zhang S, Deng C (2015) Superior sodium intercalation of honeycomb-structured hierarchical porous Na3V2(PO4)3/C microballs prepared by a facile one-pot synthesis. J Mater Chem A Mater energy Sustain 3:7732–7740Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Song W, Cao X, Wu Z, Chen J, Huangfu K, Wang X, Huang Y, Ji X (2016) A study into the extracted ion number for NASICON structured Na3V2(PO4)3 in sodium-ion batteries. Phys Chem Chem Phys 16:17681–17687Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Jian Z, Zhao L, Pan H, Hu YS, Li H, Chen W, Chen L (2012) Carbon coated Na3V2(PO4)3 as novel electrode material for sodium ion batteries. Electrochem Commun 14:86–89. 9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Song W, Ji X, Pan C, Zhu Y, Chen Q, Banks CE (2013) A Na3V2(PO4)3 cathode material for use in hybrid lithium ion batteries. Phys Chem Chem Phys 15:14357–14363CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Si L, Yuan Z, Hu L et al (2014) Uniform and continuous carbon coated sodium vanadium phosphate cathode materials for sodium-ion battery. J Power Sources 272:880–885CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Wang D, Chen N, Li M, Wang C, Ehrenberg H, Bie X, Wei Y, Chen G, Du F (2015) Na3V2(PO4)3/C composite as the intercalation-type anode material for sodium-ion batteries with superior rate capability and long-cycle life. J Mater Chem A 3:8636–8642CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Cullity BD, Stock SR (2013) Elements of X-ray diffraction 3e. PearsonGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Prince Babbar
    • 1
  • Aleksandr Ivanishchev
    • 2
    • 3
  • Alexei Churikov
    • 3
  • Ambesh Dixit
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Physics and Center for Solar EnergyIndian Institute of Technology JodhpurJodhpurIndia
  2. 2.Center for Electrochemical Energy StorageSkolkovo Institute of Science and Technology, Skolkovo Innovation CenterMoscowRussian Federation
  3. 3.Institute of ChemistryNational Research Saratov State University named after N.G.ChernyshevskySaratovRussian Federation

Personalised recommendations