Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) plays a leading role in the non-invasive evaluation of bone marrow (BM). Normal BM pattern depends on the ratio and distribution of yellow and red marrow, which are subject to changes with age, pathologies, and treatments. Neonates show almost entirely red marrow. Over time, yellow marrow conversion takes place with a characteristic sequence leading to a red marrow persistence in proximal metaphyses of long bones. In adults, normal BM is composed of both red (40% water, 40% fat) and yellow marrow (15% water, 80% fat). Due to the higher content of fat, yellow marrow normally appears hyperintense on T1-weighted (T1w) fast spin echo (FSE) sequences and hypo-/iso-intense in short tau inversion recovery (STIR) T2-weighted (T2w); red marrow appears slightly hyperintense in T1w FSE and hyper-/iso-intense in STIR T2w. Pathologic BM has reduced fat and increased water percentages, resulting hypointense in T1w FSE and hyperintense in STIR T2w. In oncologic patients, BM MRI signal largely depends on the treatment (irradiation and/or chemotherapy) and its timing. BM fat and water amount and location in normal red/yellow and pathologic marrow are responsible for different signals in MRI sequences whose knowledge by radiologists may help to differentiate between normal and pathologic findings. Our aim was to discuss and illustrate the MRI of BM physiologic conversion and pathologic reconversion occurring in malignancies and after treatments in cancer patients.
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Chiarilli, M.G., Delli Pizzi, A., Mastrodicasa, D. et al. Bone marrow magnetic resonance imaging: physiologic and pathologic findings that radiologist should know. Radiol med (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11547-020-01239-2
- Bone marrow
- Magnetic resonance imaging
- Differential diagnosis
- Musculoskeletal system spine imaging