Safety and effectiveness of transcatheter embolization in the treatment of internal mammary artery injuries
Demonstrate the role of endovascular management in the treatment of internal mammary artery (IMA) injuries using transcatheter embolization reviewing our 7-year experience.
Materials and methods
Our retrospective analysis of cases consists of a total of 12 patients (8 M and 4 F; mean age 52 years) who underwent angiographic studies and transcatheter embolization for IMA injuries. Causes of vascular injury were divided in high-energy trauma (n = 6), iatrogenic (n = 3) and penetrating injuries (n = 3). Type of trauma, associated injury, imaging findings, treatments and complications were assessed. Imaging findings included active haemorrhage, pseudoaneurysm and focal dissection.
Embolization was performed with microcoils in all patients; complete thrombosis was obtained in four patients by additional injection of Spongostan pledgets and in two patients with 300–500 μm particles. The technical success rate was 100%. No patient died as a direct result of vascular injury; one died of myocardial contusion and one for severe multiorgan failure related to high-energy trauma. No major and minor complications were registered. No patient required emergency surgery or subsequent surgical treatment.
Transcatheter embolization offers an effective, efficient and safe alternative to conventional surgical management of IMA injuries.
KeywordsInternal mammary artery Arterial injury Angiography Transcatheter embolization
Compliance with ethical standards
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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