La radiologia medica

, Volume 123, Issue 4, pp 314–321 | Cite as

Interventional therapeutic procedures in the musculoskeletal system: an Italian Survey by the Italian College of Musculoskeletal Radiology

  • Enzo Silvestri
  • Antonio Barile
  • Domenico Albano
  • Carmelo Messina
  • Davide Orlandi
  • Angelo Corazza
  • Luigi Zugaro
  • Carlo Masciocchi
  • Luca Maria Sconfienza



To perform an online survey among all members of the Italian College of Musculoskeletal Radiology to understand how therapeutic musculoskeletal procedures are performed in daily practice in Italy.


We administered an online survey to all 2405 members about the use of therapeutic musculoskeletal procedures in their institutions asking 16 different questions. Subgroup analysis was performed between general and orthopaedic hospitals with Mann–Whitney U and χ 2 statistics.


A total of 129/2405 answers (5.4% of members) were included in our analysis. A median of 142.5 (25th–75th percentiles: 50–535.5; range 10–5000) therapeutic musculoskeletal procedures per single institution was performed in 2016. Arthropathic pain was the main indication. The most common procedures were joint injection, bursal/tendon injection, and irrigation of calcific tendinopathy. Ultrasound-guided procedures were mainly performed in ultrasonography rooms (77.4%) rather than in dedicated interventional rooms (22.6%). Conversely, fluoroscopic procedures were performed almost with the same frequency in interventional radiology suites (52.4%) and in general radiology rooms (47.6%). In most institutions (72%), autologous blood or components were not used. The median number of therapeutic musculoskeletal procedures performed in orthopaedic hospitals was significantly higher than in general hospitals (P = 0.002), as well as for the use of autologous preparations (P = 0.004).


Joint injection, bursal/tendon injection, and irrigation of calcific tendinopathy were the most common therapeutic musculoskeletal procedures, being arthropathic pain the main indication. The percentage of procedures and the use of autologous preparations were significantly higher in orthopaedic hospitals than in general hospitals.


Joint injection Bursa Tendon Calcific tendinopathy Interventional musculoskeletal procedures Ultrasound 



Italian College of Musculoskeletal Radiology. Enzo Silvestri is current and Antonio Barile is elected chair of the Musculoskeletal College. Authors want to thank all members who completed the survey in full and gave their consent to publish their names: Alessio Angileri, Francesco Arrigoni, Angelo Asciano, Raffaele Averna, Francesco Bartelli, Alberto Bellelli, Massimo Giuliano Bonetti, Mario Canepari, Rinaldo Capoccia, Cristian Caporali, Emanuele Ciarcià, Federico Ciolina, Paolo Comes, Armando Conchiglia, Luca De Flaviis, Pierluigi De Matteis, Paola Erra, Gianluigi Di Giulio, Marilene Eccher, Carlo Faletti, Giampiero Feltrin, Gisella Ferretti, Giovanni Foti, Michele Liotti, Alessandro Lupi, Nicola Magarelli, Daniele Maiettini, Giorgia Manfredonia, Sabino Mangino, Fabio Melchiorre, Davide Monti, Giovanni Musella, Alessandro Napoli, Mauro Niccolini, Dario Notaro, Giulio Pasquotti, Luciano Perini, Caterina Peroni, Lucia Pinali, Vincenzo Pipitone, Stefano Romiti, Domiziana Santucci, Giancarlo Sarnelli, Giuseppe Sarti, Germano Scevola, Marco Scrocca, Casimiro Simonetti, Michele Solarino, Giulio Vallati, Carlo Zanolini.

Compliance with ethical standards

Ethical approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. For this type of study ethical approval and patients’ consent were not required.


No funding was obtained for the present study.

Conflict of interest

All authors are members of the Musculoskeletal College of the Italian Society of Medical and Interventional Radiology. Enzo Silvestri is current and Antonio Barile is elected chair of the Musculoskeletal College. All other authors have no conflict of interest to disclose. Institutional review board approval was not needed for the present paper as patients are not involved.


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Copyright information

© Italian Society of Medical Radiology 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Enzo Silvestri
    • 1
    • 6
  • Antonio Barile
    • 2
  • Domenico Albano
    • 3
  • Carmelo Messina
    • 4
  • Davide Orlandi
    • 1
    • 6
  • Angelo Corazza
    • 4
  • Luigi Zugaro
    • 2
  • Carlo Masciocchi
    • 2
  • Luca Maria Sconfienza
    • 4
    • 5
  1. 1.Unit of RadiologyOspedale Evangelico InternazionaleGenoaItaly
  2. 2.Department of Biotechnology and Applied Clinical ScienceUniversity of L’AquilaL’AquilaItaly
  3. 3.Department of Radiology, Di.Bi.Med.University of PalermoPalermoItaly
  4. 4.Unità Operativa di Radiologia Diagnostica ed InterventisticaIRCCS Istituto Ortopedico GaleazziMilanItaly
  5. 5.Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche per la SaluteUniversità degli Studi di MilanoMilanItaly
  6. 6.S.C. Diagnostica per Immagini e Ecografia InterventisticaOspedale Evangelico Internazionale di GenovaGenoaItaly

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