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Table 4 General Combining Abilities (GCA) where αt = the average effect of the allele substitution (A for a) and βt is the parameter for the interaction between two alleles. Breeding Value 1 is the practical one that applies to the next generation whereas Breeding Value 2 is the theoretical one for an equilibrium population

From: A Brief History of the Impact of Potato Genetics on the Breeding of Tetraploid Potato Cultivars for Tuber Propagation

Genotype GCA Breeding Value 1 Breeding Value 2
AAAA 2t – 2q2βt 4t – 4q2βt 4t
AAAa ½(3qp)αt + q(pq)βt (3qp)αt + 2q(pq)βt (3qp)αt
AAaa ½(2q–2p)αt – ½(\(\frac23\)–4pq)βt (2q–2p)αt – (\(\frac23\)–4pq)βt (2q–2p)αt
Aaaa ½(q–3p)αt + p(qp)βt (q–3p)αt + 2p(qp)βt (q–3p)αt
aaaa –2t – 2p2βt –4t – 4p2βt –4t