TechTrends

, Volume 62, Issue 3, pp 224–229 | Cite as

Innovating Pharmacy Curriculum through Backward Design

  • Bradley M. Wright
  • Lori Hornsby
  • Karen F. Marlowe
  • Julaine Fowlin
  • Daniel W. Surry
Original Paper

Abstract

This paper is a description of a curriculum development process used by a pharmacy school to redesign its Doctor of Pharmacy program to meet the changing demands of the profession and to comply with new accreditation standards. The goal of the redesigned curriculum was to produce “practice-ready” graduates who were able to enter the profession with the skills and knowledge necessary to succeed in an increasingly team-based, complex, diverse, and evolving field. The school deviated from stand-alone courses with a discipline specific focus to a series of integrated learning experiences. The Backward Design framework was utilized to organize the curriculum revision efforts. The school began by outlining a vision of the profession of pharmacy for the coming decade. Based on that vision, the school determined 10 broad domains in which an entry-level pharmacist should be competent. Each domain was broken down into ability-based outcomes and further into competencies. The competencies were prioritized, mapped, and spiraled across the learning experiences within the curriculum combining the skills and knowledge from multiple areas of pharmacy education, content areas, and practice settings.

Keywords

Pharmacy education Curriculum design Innovation Accreditation standards Competencies 

Notes

Acknowledgements

Many people significantly contributed to the design of the Practice-Ready Curriculum. Of the many people who have worked tirelessly to support the curricular revision, Dr. Lee Evans, former Dean of the School, and Dr. Richard Hansen, the current Dean, deserve special mention for their outstanding leadership. Dr. Tim Moore, Chair of the Department of Drug Discovery and Development, and Dr. Channing Ford, Assistant Director, Office of Teaching, Learning, and Assessment, also contributed throughout the process in vital ways from the beginning. In addition, the Faculty of the Auburn University Harrison School of Pharmacy have adopted this process and begun to transform the school’s PharmD curriculum into the Practice-Ready Curriculum.

References

  1. Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education. (2015). Accreditation Standards and Key Elements for the Professional Program in Pharmacy Leading to the Doctor of Pharmacy Degree (“Standards 2016”). Chicago: Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education.Google Scholar
  2. Baroy, J., Chung, D., Frisch, R., Apgar, D., & Slack, M. K. (2016). The impact of pharmacist immunization programs on adult immunization rates: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of the American Pharmacists Association, 56(4), 418–426.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.japh.2016.03.006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Berenson, R. A., Hammons, T., Gans, D. N., et al. (2008). A house is not a home: Keeping patients at the center of practice redesign. Health Affairs, 27(5), 1219–1230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bodenheimer, T. S., & Smith, M. D. (2013). Primary care: Proposed solutions to the physician shortage without training more physicians. Health Affairs, 32(11), 1881–1886.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Boechler, L., Despins, R., Holmes, J., Northey, J., Sinclair, C., Walliser, M., & Perepelkin, J. (2015). Changing “what is” into “what should be. Canadian Pharmacists Journal /Revue des Pharmaciens du Canada Advocacy in Pharmacy, 148(3), 138–141.Google Scholar
  6. Carter, B. L. (2016). Evolution of Clinical Pharmacy in the USA and future directions for patient care. Drugs & Aging, 33(3), 169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Covey, S. R. (2004). The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People: Restoring the Character Ethic. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  8. Daugherty, K. D. (2006). Backward course design: Making the end the beginning. American Journal of Pharmacy Education, 70(6), 1–5.Google Scholar
  9. Dracup, K. (2017). It Takes a Village: Interprofessional Collaboration in Cardiology. Journal of Cardiac Failure, 23(7), 570–573.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Emory, J. (2014). Understanding backward design to strengthen curricular models. Nurse Educator, 39(3), 122–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Hornsby, L. B., Wright, B., Fowlin, J., Surry, D., Ford, C., Marlowe, K. F., & Moore, T. (2017). Curricular revision through backward design and integration. Meeting Abstracts: 118th Annual Meeting of the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy, Nashville, Tennessee, July 15–19, 2017. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 81(5), 103.Google Scholar
  12. Kliethermes, M. A. (2017). Understanding health care billing basics. Pharmacy Today, 23(7), 57–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. O’Flaherty, J., & Phillips, C. (2015). The use of flipped classrooms in higher education: A scoping review. Internet and Higher Education, 25, 85–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Pedersen, C. A., Schneider, P. J., & Scheckelhoff, D. J. (2016). ASHP national survey of pharmacy practice in hospital settings: Monitoring and patient education — 2015. American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy, 73, e489–e512.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Pluta, W., Richards, B., & Mutnick, A. (2013). PBL and beyond: Trends in collaborative learning. Teaching and Learning in Medicine, 25(S1), S9–S16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Rogers, E. M. (1983). Diffusion of innovations (3rd ed.). New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  17. Smith, M., Bates, D. W., & Bodenheimer, T. S. (2013). Pharmacists belong in accountable care organizations and integrated care teams. Health Affairs, 32(11), 1963–1970.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Wiggins, G. P., & McTighe, J. (1998). Understanding by design. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Association for Educational Communications & Technology 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bradley M. Wright
    • 1
    • 2
  • Lori Hornsby
    • 1
    • 3
  • Karen F. Marlowe
    • 4
  • Julaine Fowlin
    • 1
  • Daniel W. Surry
    • 1
  1. 1.Auburn University Harrison School of PharmacyAuburnUSA
  2. 2.UAB School of Medicine – Huntsville CampusHuntsvilleUSA
  3. 3.Columbus Regional Health, Outpatient ClinicColumbusUSA
  4. 4.Auburn University Harrison School of PharmacyMobileUSA

Personalised recommendations