Table 5 Summary of parametric coefficients for the model fitted to tongue sensor movements in the midsaggital plane. The lexical predictor was whole-word frequency. SDV = Sensor by Dimension by Vowel, TT = tongue tip, TB = tongue body, ver = vertical movements, hor = horizontal movements

From: Paradigmatic enhancement of stem vowels in regular English inflected verb forms

parametric coefficients estimate std. error t-value p-value
(Intercept) −14.7510 0.2899 −50.8754 < 0.0001
TB hor [i] 10.8316 0.2569 42.1635 < 0.0001
TB ver [ɑ] 4.6915 0.1565 29.9768 < 0.0001
TB ver [i] 11.8961 0.2555 46.5669 < 0.0001
TT hor [ɑ] −2.1626 0.1531 −14.1206 < 0.0001
TT hor [i] 9.3206 0.2563 36.3727 < 0.0001
TT ver [ɑ] 2.7278 0.1622 16.8184 < 0.0001
TT ver [i] 5.3013 0.2574 20.5994 < 0.0001
Tense = stem+d 0.6210 0.1804 3.4427 0.0006
Tense = stem+s 1.2803 0.1583 8.0893 < 0.0001
Tense = stem+ing 0.4334 0.1861 2.3295 0.0198
SDV = TB hor [i] : Tense = stem+d −1.0616 0.1998 −5.3134 < 0.0001
SDV = TB ver [ɑ] : Tense = stem+d −0.1744 0.2298 −0.7590 0.4479
SDV = TB ver [i] : Tense = stem+d −0.6762 0.1948 −3.4710 0.0005
SDV = TT hor [ɑ] : Tense = stem+d 0.0962 0.2252 0.4269 0.6694
SDV = TT hor [i] : Tense = stem+d −1.1716 0.1976 −5.9292 < 0.0001
SDV = TT ver [ɑ] : Tense = stem+d −1.6940 0.2430 −6.9721 < 0.0001
SDV = TT ver [i] : Tense = stem+d 0.3798 0.2019 1.8810 0.0600
SDV = TB hor [i] : Tense = stem+s −1.2253 0.1752 −6.9938 < 0.0001
SDV = TB ver [ɑ] : Tense = stem+s −1.0828 0.2001 −5.4103 < 0.0001
SDV = TB ver [i] : Tense = stem+s −0.9958 0.1712 −5.8162 < 0.0001
SDV = TT hor [ɑ] : Tense = stem+s −0.0176 0.2004 −0.0877 0.9301
SDV = TT hor [i] : Tense = stem+s −0.9756 0.1735 −5.6243 < 0.0001
SDV = TT ver [ɑ] : Tense = stem+s −2.1082 0.2126 −9.9184 < 0.0001
SDV = TT ver [i] : Tense = stem+s −0.6590 0.1783 −3.6951 0.0002
SDV = TB hor [i] : Tense = stem+ing −0.8314 0.2045 −4.0656 < 0.0001
SDV = TB ver [ɑ] : Tense = stem+ing 1.1117 0.2390 4.6519 < 0.0001
SDV = TB ver [i] : Tense = stem+ing −0.8253 0.1997 −4.1322 < 0.0001
SDV = TT hor [ɑ] : Tense = stem+ing 0.2608 0.2351 1.1090 0.2674
SDV = TT hor [i] : Tense = stem+ing −0.6632 0.2026 −3.2738 0.0011
SDV = TT ver [ɑ] : Tense = stem+ing 1.9943 0.2407 8.2869 < 0.0001
SDV = TT ver [i] : Tense = stem+ing 0.5748 0.2098 2.7391 0.0062