Table 3 Summary of parametric coefficients for the model fitted to tongue sensor movements in the midsaggital plane, with paradigmatic probability as covariate. SDV = Sensor by Dimension by Vowel, TT = tongue tip, TB = tongue body, ver = vertical movements, hor = horizontal movements

From: Paradigmatic enhancement of stem vowels in regular English inflected verb forms

parametric coefficients estimate std. error t-value p-value
Intercept (TB hor [ɑ], Tense = stem) −14.6575 0.3091 −47.4163 < 0.0001
Tense = stem+s (TB hor [ɑ]) 1.2326 0.2116 5.8264 < 0.0001
Tense = stem+d (TB hor [ɑ]) 0.4989 0.2452 2.0347 0.0419
Tense = stem+ing (TB hor [ɑ]) 0.3785 0.2557 1.4802 0.1388
SDV = TT hor [i] (Tense = stem) 9.3122 0.2790 33.3766 < 0.0001
SDV = TT hor [i] : Tense = stem+s −0.9969 0.2252 −4.4260 < 0.0001
SDV = TT hor [i] : Tense = stem+d −1.1806 0.2607 −4.5293 < 0.0001
SDV = TT hor [i] : Tense = stem+ing −0.7144 0.2693 −2.6533 0.0080
SDV = TB hor [i] (Tense = stem) 10.6854 0.2795 38.2284 < 0.0001
SDV = TB hor [i] : Tense = stem+s −1.1241 0.2265 −4.9634 < 0.0001
SDV = TB hor [i] : Tense = stem+d −0.9085 0.2625 −3.4611 0.0005
SDV = TB hor [i] : Tense = stem+ing −0.6452 0.2698 −2.3911 0.0168
SDV = TT ver [i] (Tense = stem) 5.2337 0.2804 18.6637 < 0.0001
SDV = TT ver [i] : Tense = stem+s −0.8055 0.2303 −3.4982 0.0005
SDV = TT ver [i] : Tense = stem+d 0.3809 0.2644 1.4406 0.1497
SDV = TT ver [i] : Tense = stem+ing 0.7395 0.2741 2.6979 0.0070
SDV = TB ver [i] (Tense = stem) 11.7611 0.2780 42.2991 < 0.0001
SDV = TB ver [i] : Tense = stem+s −0.9430 0.2233 −4.2235 < 0.0001
SDV = TB ver [i] : Tense = stem+d −0.5270 0.2583 −2.0400 0.0413
SDV = TB ver [i] : Tense = stem+ing −0.6493 0.2662 −2.4390 0.0147
SDV = TT hor [ɑ] (Tense = stem) −2.3130 0.2121 −10.9076 < 0.0001
SDV = TT hor [ɑ] : Tense = stem+s 0.1184 0.2695 0.4392 0.6605
SDV = TT hor [ɑ] : Tense = stem+d 0.2741 0.3130 0.8760 0.3811
SDV = TT hor [ɑ] : Tense = stem+ing 0.4097 0.3274 1.2511 0.2109
SDV = TT ver [ɑ] (Tense = stem) 3.6150 0.2327 15.5326 < 0.0001
SDV = TT ver [ɑ] : Tense = stem+s −3.3122 0.2984 −11.0987 < 0.0001
SDV = TT ver [ɑ] : Tense = stem+d −3.0447 0.3462 −8.7956 < 0.0001
SDV = TT ver [ɑ] : Tense = stem+ing 0.4263 0.3562 1.1966 0.2315
SDV = TB ver [ɑ] (Tense = stem) 5.2527 0.2260 23.2376 < 0.0001
SDV = TB ver [ɑ] : Tense = stem+s −1.8583 0.2829 −6.5697 < 0.0001
SDV = TB ver [ɑ] : Tense = stem+d −1.0930 0.3333 −3.2797 0.0010
SDV = TB ver [ɑ] : Tense = stem+ing 0.0967 0.3501 0.2761 0.7825